Clinical risk factors for fractures in multi-ethnic women: The Women's Health Initiative

Jane A. Cauley, Lieling Wu, Nina S. Wampler, Janice M. Barnhart, Matthew Allison, Zhao Chen, Rebecca Jackson, John Robbins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Scopus citations

Abstract

To identify risk factors for fractures in multi-ethnic women, we studied 159,579 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. In general, risk factors for fractures were similar across ethnic groups. However, irrespective of their ethnicity, women with multiple risk factors have a high risk of fracture. Targeting these high-risk women for screening and intervention could reduce fractures. Introduction: Fracture rates tend to be lower in minority women, but consequences may be greater. In addition, the number of fractures is expected to increase in minority women because of current demographic trends. There are limited prospective data on risk factors for fractures in minority women. Materials and Methods: We studied 159,579 women 50-79 yr of age enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaire or examination. Nonspine fractures that occurred after study entry were identified over an average follow-up of 8 ± 2.6 (SD) yr. Results: Annualized rates (%) of fracture in whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians were 2.0, 0.9, 1.3, 1.2, and 2.0, respectively. Significant predictors [HR (95% CI)] of fractures by ethnic group were as follows: blacks: at least a high school education, 1.22 (1.0, 1.5); (+) fracture history, 1.7 (1.4, 2.2); and more than two falls, 1.7 (1.9, 2.0); Hispanics: height (>162 cm), 1.6 (1.1, 2.2); (+) fracture history, 1.9 (1.4, 2.5); more than two falls, 1.8 (1.4, 2.3); arthritis, 1.3 (1.1, 1.6); corticosteroid use, 3.9 (1.9, 8.0); and parental history of fracture, 1.3 (1.0, 1.6); Asians: age (per 5 yr), 1.2 (1.0, 1.3); (+) fracture history, 1.5 (1.1, 2.0); current hormone therapy (HT), 0.7 (0.5, 0.8); parity (at least five), 1.8 (1.1, 3.0); more than two falls, 1.4 (1.1, 1.9); American Indian: (+) fracture history, 2. 9 (1.5, 5.7); current HT, 0.5 (0.3, 0.9). Women with eight or more risk factors had more than a 2-fold higher rate of fracture compared with women with four or fewer risk factors. Two ethnicity x risk factor interactions were identified: age and fall history. Conclusions: Irrespective of their ethnicity, women with multiple risk factors have a high risk of fracture. Targeting these high-risk women for screening and intervention could reduce fractures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1816-1826
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume22
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2007

Keywords

  • Ethnicity
  • Osteoporotic fractures
  • Race
  • Risk factors
  • Women's Health Initiative

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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    Cauley, J. A., Wu, L., Wampler, N. S., Barnhart, J. M., Allison, M., Chen, Z., Jackson, R., & Robbins, J. (2007). Clinical risk factors for fractures in multi-ethnic women: The Women's Health Initiative. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 22(11), 1816-1826. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.070713