Closely related viruses of the marine picoeukaryotic alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus exhibit different ecological strategies

Amy E. Zimmerman, Charles Bachy, Xiufeng Ma, Simon Roux, Ho Bin Jang, Matthew Sullivan, Jacob R. Waldbauer, Alexandra Z. Worden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In marine ecosystems, viruses are major disrupters of the direct flow of carbon and nutrients to higher trophic levels. Although the genetic diversity of several eukaryotic phytoplankton virus groups has been characterized, their infection dynamics are less understood, such that the physiological and ecological implications of their diversity remain unclear. We compared genomes and infection phenotypes of the two most closely related cultured phycodnaviruses infecting the widespread picoprasinophyte Ostreococcus lucimarinus under standard- (1.3 divisions per day) and limited-light (0.41 divisions per day) nutrient replete conditions. OlV7 infection caused early arrest of the host cell cycle, coinciding with a significantly higher proportion of infected cells than OlV1-amended treatments, regardless of host growth rate. OlV7 treatments showed a near-50-fold increase of progeny virions at the higher host growth rate, contrasting with OlV1's 16-fold increase. However, production of OlV7 virions was more sensitive than OlV1 production to reduced host growth rate, suggesting fitness trade-offs between infection efficiency and resilience to host physiology. Moreover, although organic matter released from OlV1- and OlV7-infected hosts had broadly similar chemical composition, some distinct molecular signatures were observed. Collectively, these results suggest that current views on viral relatedness through marker and core gene analyses underplay operational divergence and consequences for host ecology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEnvironmental Microbiology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

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algae
virus
alga
Viruses
viruses
Infection
Virion
Growth
virion
Phytoplankton
Food
infection
Phycodnaviridae
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Ecology
fold
Ecosystem
Carbon
nutrient
nutrients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Closely related viruses of the marine picoeukaryotic alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus exhibit different ecological strategies. / Zimmerman, Amy E.; Bachy, Charles; Ma, Xiufeng; Roux, Simon; Jang, Ho Bin; Sullivan, Matthew; Waldbauer, Jacob R.; Worden, Alexandra Z.

In: Environmental Microbiology, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zimmerman, Amy E. ; Bachy, Charles ; Ma, Xiufeng ; Roux, Simon ; Jang, Ho Bin ; Sullivan, Matthew ; Waldbauer, Jacob R. ; Worden, Alexandra Z. / Closely related viruses of the marine picoeukaryotic alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus exhibit different ecological strategies. In: Environmental Microbiology. 2019.
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