Cloud Atlas: Weak color modulations due to rotation in the planetary-mass companion GU Psc b and 11 other brown dwarfs

Ben W.P. Lew, Dániel Apai, Yifan Zhou, Jacqueline Radigan, Mark Marley, Glenn Schneider, Nicolas B. Cowan, Paulo A. Miles-Páez, Elena Manjavacas, Theodora Karalidi, L. R. Bedin, Patrick J. Lowrance, Adam J. Burgasser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Among the greatest challenges in understanding ultra-cool brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres is the evolution of cloud structure as a function of temperature and gravity. In this study, we present the rotational modulations of GU Psc b – a rare mid-T spectral type planetary-mass companion at the end of the L/T spectral type transition. Based on the HST/WFC3 1.1-1.67 µm time-series spectra, we observe a quasi-sinusoidal light curve with a peak-to-trough flux variation of 2.7% and a minimum period of eight hours. The rotation-modulated spectral variations are weakly wavelength-dependent, or largely gray between 1.1-1.67 µm. The gray modulations indicate that heterogeneous clouds are present in the photosphere of this low-gravity mid-T dwarf. We place the color and brightness variations of GU Psc b in the context of rotational modulations reported for mid-L to late-T dwarfs. Based on these observations, we report a tentative trend: mid-to-late T dwarfs become slightly redder in J − H color with increasing J-band brightness, while L dwarfs become slightly bluer with increasing brightness. If this trend is verified with more T-dwarf samples, it suggests that in addition to the mostly gray modulations, there is a second-order spectral-type dependence on the nature of rotational modulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUnknown Journal
StatePublished - Dec 5 2019

Keywords

  • Brown dwarfs
  • Exoplanet atmospheres
  • Exoplanet atmospheric variability
  • Planetary atmospheres
  • T dwarfs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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