Code Artificiality: A Metric for the Code Stealth Based on an N-Gram Model

Yuichiro Kanzaki, Akito Monden, Christian S Collberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

This paper proposes a method for evaluating the artificiality of protected code by means of an N-gram model. The proposed artificiality metric helps us measure the stealth of the protected code, that is, the degree to which protected code can be distinguished from unprotected code. In a case study, we use the proposed method to evaluate the artificiality of programs that are transformed by well-known obfuscation techniques. The results show that static obfuscating transformations (e.g., Control flow flattening) have little effect on artificiality. However, dynamic obfuscating transformations (e.g., Code encryption), or a technique that inserts junk code fragments into the program, tend to increase the artificiality, which may have a significant impact on the stealth of the code.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - International Workshop on Software Protection, SPRO 2015
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages31-37
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781467370943
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 31 2015
Event1st International Workshop on Software Protection, SPRO 2015 - Florence, Italy
Duration: May 19 2015 → …

Other

Other1st International Workshop on Software Protection, SPRO 2015
CountryItaly
CityFlorence
Period5/19/15 → …

Keywords

  • Code Obfuscation
  • Code Stealth
  • Program Analysis
  • Software Protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software

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    Kanzaki, Y., Monden, A., & Collberg, C. S. (2015). Code Artificiality: A Metric for the Code Stealth Based on an N-Gram Model. In Proceedings - International Workshop on Software Protection, SPRO 2015 (pp. 31-37). [7174808] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/SPRO.2015.14