The Leslie-Gower model is a discrete time analog of the competition Lotka–Volterra model and is known to possess the same dynamic scenarios of that famous model. The Leslie–Gower model played a historically significant role in the history of competition theory in its application to classic laboratory experiments of two competing species of flour beetles (carried out by Park in the 1940s–1960s). While these experiments generally supported what became the Competitive Exclusion Principle, Park observed an anomalous coexistence case. Recent literature has discussed Park’s ‘coexistence case’ by means of non-Lotka–Volterra, non-equilibrium dynamics that occur in a high dimensional model with life cycle stages. We study this dynamic possibility in the lowest possible dimension, that is to say, by means of a model involving only two species each with two life cycle stages. We do this by extending the Leslie–Gower model so as to describe the competitive interaction of two species with juvenile and adult classes. We give a complete account of the global dynamics of the resulting model and show that it allows for non-equilibrium competitive coexistence as competition coefficients are increased. We also show that this phenomenon occurs in a general class of models for competing populations structured by juvenile and adult life cycle stages.
- Competitive exclusion principle
- Non-equilibrium coexistence
- Stage structured populations
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics