The preparation of nanostructured semiconductor metal oxide materials has generated considerable interest as enhanced electrode materials for applications in energy storage and conversion. We will describe a facile and versatile method to prepare one-dimensional semiconducting metal oxide nanomaterials via the dipolar assembly and chemical transformation of metallic cobalt nanoparticles into cobalt oxide materials. We describe this process as a "Colloidal Polymerization" as dipolar nanoparticles are analogous to A-B monomers commonly used in step-growth polymerizations and donor-acceptor monomers utilized for supramolecular polymerizations. Synthetic aspects to control cobalt oxide nanowire composition, chain length and architecture will be discussed, along with electrical, spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of these novel materials. The potential of these materials as nanostructured electrode materials for batteries, supercapacaitors and water-splitting will also be discussed.