Background:Techniques for better hemorrhage control after injury could change outcome. A large-animal model of lethal, uncontrolled hemorrhage was developed to test whether the use of various hemostatic agents would decrease bleeding and improve early survival.Methods:A complex groin injury was created in 30 Yorkshire swine (42-55 kg) to produce uncontrolled hemorrhage. This injury included semitransection of the proximal thigh and complete division of the femoral artery and vein. After 5 minutes, the animals were randomized to (n = 6 animals per group) no dressing (ND), standard dressing (SD), SD and Rapid Deployment Hemostat (RDH) bandage, SD and QuikClot hemostatic agent (QC), or SD and TraumaDEX (TDEX). Limited volume 0.9% saline (1,000 mL over 30 minutes) resuscitation was started 30 minutes after injury. We measured blood loss, early mortality (180 minutes), and physiologic markers of hemorrhagic shock (e.g., cardiac output, blood pressure, hemoglobin, metabolic acidosis).Results:Application of wound dressing decreased mortality in all groups compared with the ND group (83% mortality). However, this difference was significant (p < 0.05) only for the QuikClot hemostatic agent (0% mortality). Before the application of dressing (first 5 minutes), there were no differences in blood loss between the groups. After application of dressings, the QC group had the lowest blood loss (4.4 ± 1.4 mL/kg).Conclusion:Of the hemostatic agents tested, QuikClot improved survival and decreased bleeding in a swine model of lethal vascular and soft tissue injury.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine