Comparison of estimated norovirus infection risk reductions for a single fomite contact scenario with residual and nonresidual hand sanitizers

Amanda M. Wilson, Kelly A. Reynolds, Lee Ann Jaykus, Blanca Escudero-Abarca, Charles P. Gerba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: The purpose of this study was to relate experimentally measured log10 human norovirus reductions for a nonresidual (60% ethanol) and a residual (quaternary ammonium-based) hand sanitizer to infection risk reductions. Methods: Human norovirus log10 reductions on hands for both sanitizers were experimentally measured using the ASTM International Standard E1838-10 method, with modification. Scenarios included product application to: (1) inoculated fingerpads with 30- and 60-second contact times, and (2) hands followed by inoculation with human norovirus immediately and 4 hours later. Hand sanitizer efficacies were used in a mathematical model estimating norovirus infection risk from a single hand-to-fomite contact under low and high environmental contamination conditions. Results: The largest log10 reductions for the residual and nonresidual hand sanitizers were for a 60-second contact time, reducing infection risk by approximately 99% and 85%, respectively. Four hours after application, the residual hand sanitizer reduced infection risks by 78.5% under high contamination conditions, whereas the nonresidual hand sanitizer offered no reduction. Discussion: Log10 virus and infection risk reductions were consistently greater for the residual hand sanitizer under all scenarios. Further data describing residual hand sanitizer efficacy with additional contamination or tactile events are needed. Conclusions: Residual antinoroviral hand sanitizers may reduce infection risks for up to 4 hours.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)538-544
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Infection Control
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2020



  • Hand sanitizer
  • Norovirus
  • Risk reduction
  • Risk target

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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