COMPROMISED FERTILITY in FREE FEEDING of WILD-CAUGHT Norway RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) with A LIQUID BAIT CONTAINING 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE DIEPOXIDE and TRIPTOLIDE

Gary W. Witmer, Stefanie Raymond-Whish, Rachael S. Moulton, Brandy R. Pyzyna, Elissa M. Calloway, Cheryl A. Dyer, Loretta P. Mayer, Patricia B Hoyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Wild rat pests in the environment cause crop and property damage and carry disease. Traditional methods of reducing populations of these pests involve poisons that can cause accidental exposures in other animals and humans. Fertility management with nonlethal chemicals would be an improved method of rat pest population control. Two chemicals known to target ovarian function in female rats are 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) and triptolide. Additionally, triptolide impairs spermatogenesis in males. A liquid bait containing no active ingredients (control), or containing triptolide (0.001%) and VCD (0.109%; active) was prepared to investigate the potential use of these agents for wild rat pest population control. Liquid bait was made available to male (n = 8 control; n = 8 active) and female (n = 8 control; n = 8 active) Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) for oral consumption prior to breeding. Whereas, control bait-treated females produced normal-sized litters (10.0 ± 1.7 pups/litter), treated females delivered no pups. Wild Norway male (n = 20) and female (n = 20) rats (Rattus norvegicus) were trapped, individually housed, and one group given free access to control bait, one group to active bait. Following three cycles of treatment-matched mating pairs, females consuming control bait (control) produced normal litter sizes (9.73 ± 0.73 pups/litter). Females who had consumed active bait (treated) produced no litters on breeding cycles one and two; however, 2 of 10 females produced small litters on the third mating cycle. In a fourth breeding cycle, control females were crossmated with treated males, and treated females were crossmated with control males. In both groups, some dams produced litters, while others did not. The differences in response reflect a heterogeneity in return to cyclicity between females. These results suggest a potential approach to integrated pest management by compromising fertility, and could provide a novel alternative to traditional poisons for reducing populations of wild rat pests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)80-90
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume48
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

Fingerprint

Norway
baits
liquids
litters (young animals)
rats
Pest Control
pests
pups
Breeding
Population Control
Rattus norvegicus
Poisons
Fertility
breeding
4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene dioxide
Litter Size
Periodicity
Spermatogenesis
integrated pest management
spermatogenesis

Keywords

  • Fertility control
  • pest control
  • population management
  • Rattus norvegicus
  • wild Norway rat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

COMPROMISED FERTILITY in FREE FEEDING of WILD-CAUGHT Norway RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) with A LIQUID BAIT CONTAINING 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE DIEPOXIDE and TRIPTOLIDE. / Witmer, Gary W.; Raymond-Whish, Stefanie; Moulton, Rachael S.; Pyzyna, Brandy R.; Calloway, Elissa M.; Dyer, Cheryl A.; Mayer, Loretta P.; Hoyer, Patricia B.

In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 1, 01.03.2017, p. 80-90.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Witmer, Gary W. ; Raymond-Whish, Stefanie ; Moulton, Rachael S. ; Pyzyna, Brandy R. ; Calloway, Elissa M. ; Dyer, Cheryl A. ; Mayer, Loretta P. ; Hoyer, Patricia B. / COMPROMISED FERTILITY in FREE FEEDING of WILD-CAUGHT Norway RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) with A LIQUID BAIT CONTAINING 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE DIEPOXIDE and TRIPTOLIDE. In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 48, No. 1. pp. 80-90.
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abstract = "Wild rat pests in the environment cause crop and property damage and carry disease. Traditional methods of reducing populations of these pests involve poisons that can cause accidental exposures in other animals and humans. Fertility management with nonlethal chemicals would be an improved method of rat pest population control. Two chemicals known to target ovarian function in female rats are 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) and triptolide. Additionally, triptolide impairs spermatogenesis in males. A liquid bait containing no active ingredients (control), or containing triptolide (0.001{\%}) and VCD (0.109{\%}; active) was prepared to investigate the potential use of these agents for wild rat pest population control. Liquid bait was made available to male (n = 8 control; n = 8 active) and female (n = 8 control; n = 8 active) Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) for oral consumption prior to breeding. Whereas, control bait-treated females produced normal-sized litters (10.0 ± 1.7 pups/litter), treated females delivered no pups. Wild Norway male (n = 20) and female (n = 20) rats (Rattus norvegicus) were trapped, individually housed, and one group given free access to control bait, one group to active bait. Following three cycles of treatment-matched mating pairs, females consuming control bait (control) produced normal litter sizes (9.73 ± 0.73 pups/litter). Females who had consumed active bait (treated) produced no litters on breeding cycles one and two; however, 2 of 10 females produced small litters on the third mating cycle. In a fourth breeding cycle, control females were crossmated with treated males, and treated females were crossmated with control males. In both groups, some dams produced litters, while others did not. The differences in response reflect a heterogeneity in return to cyclicity between females. These results suggest a potential approach to integrated pest management by compromising fertility, and could provide a novel alternative to traditional poisons for reducing populations of wild rat pests.",
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