Conducting polymer diffraction gratings on gold surfaces created by microcontact printing and electropolymerization at submicron length scales

F. Saneeha Marikkar, Chet Carter, Kathy Kieltyka, Joseph W F Robertson, Cathie Williamson, Adam Simmonds, Rebecca Zangmeister, Torsten Fritz, Neal R Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Conducting polymer diffraction gratings on Au substrates have been created using microcontact printing of C 18-alkanethiols, followed by electropolymerization of either poly(aniline) (PANI) or poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Soft-polymer replicas of simple diffraction grating masters (1200 lines/mm) were used to define the alkanethiol template for polymer growth. Growth of PANI and PEDOT diffraction gratings was followed in real time, through in situ tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, and by monitoring diffraction efficiency (DE) as a function of grating depth. DE increased as grating depth increased, up to a limiting efficiency (13-26%, with white light illumination), defined by the combined optical properties of the grating and the Au substrate, and ultimately limited by the loss of resolution due to coalescence of the polymer films. Grating efficiency is strongly dependent upon the grating depth and the refractive index contrast between the grating material and the surrounding solutions. Both PEDOT and PANI gratings show refractive index changes as a function of applied potential, consistent with changes in refractive index brought about by the doping/dedoping of the conducting polymer. The DE of PANI gratings are strongly dependent on the pH of the superstrate solution; the maximum sensitivity (ΔDE/ΔpH) is achieved with PANI gratings held at +0.4 V versus Ag/AgCl, where the redox chemistry is dominated by the acid-base equilibrium between the protonated (emeraldine salt) and deprotonated (emeraldine base) forms of PANI. Simulations of DE were conducted for various combinations of conducting polymer refractive index and grating depth, to compute sensitivity parameters, which are maximized when the grating depth is ca. 50% of its maximum obtainable depth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10395-10402
Number of pages8
JournalLangmuir
Volume23
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 25 2007

Fingerprint

Electropolymerization
Diffraction gratings
Conducting polymers
conducting polymers
gratings (spectra)
printing
Gold
Printing
Diffraction efficiency
gratings
gold
Refractive index
refractivity
Polymers
diffraction
Substrates
Aniline
polymers
Coalescence
Polymer films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

Cite this

Conducting polymer diffraction gratings on gold surfaces created by microcontact printing and electropolymerization at submicron length scales. / Marikkar, F. Saneeha; Carter, Chet; Kieltyka, Kathy; Robertson, Joseph W F; Williamson, Cathie; Simmonds, Adam; Zangmeister, Rebecca; Fritz, Torsten; Armstrong, Neal R.

In: Langmuir, Vol. 23, No. 20, 25.09.2007, p. 10395-10402.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marikkar, FS, Carter, C, Kieltyka, K, Robertson, JWF, Williamson, C, Simmonds, A, Zangmeister, R, Fritz, T & Armstrong, NR 2007, 'Conducting polymer diffraction gratings on gold surfaces created by microcontact printing and electropolymerization at submicron length scales', Langmuir, vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 10395-10402. https://doi.org/10.1021/la701369h
Marikkar, F. Saneeha ; Carter, Chet ; Kieltyka, Kathy ; Robertson, Joseph W F ; Williamson, Cathie ; Simmonds, Adam ; Zangmeister, Rebecca ; Fritz, Torsten ; Armstrong, Neal R. / Conducting polymer diffraction gratings on gold surfaces created by microcontact printing and electropolymerization at submicron length scales. In: Langmuir. 2007 ; Vol. 23, No. 20. pp. 10395-10402.
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