Objective: A recent randomized trial suggested nitinol self-expanding stents (SES) were associated with reduced restenosis rates compared with simple percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). We evaluated our results with superficial femoral artery (SFA) SES to determine whether TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus (TASC) classification, indication for intervention, patient risk factors, or Society of Vascular Surgery (SVS) runoff score correlated with patency and clinical outcome, and to evaluate if bare nitinol stents or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) covered stent placement adversely impacts the tibial artery runoff. Methods: A total of 109 consecutive SFA stenting procedures (95 patients) at two university-affiliated hospitals from 2003 to 2006 were identified. Medical records, angiographic, and noninvasive studies were reviewed in detail. Patient demographics and risk factors were recorded. Procedural angiograms were classified according to TASC Criteria (I-2000 and II-2007 versions) and SVS runoff scores were determined in every patient; primary, primary-assisted, secondary patency, and limb salvage rates were calculated. Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine if indication, TASC classification, runoff score, and comorbidities affected outcome. Results: Seventy-one patients (65%) underwent SES for claudication and 38 patients (35%) for critical limb ischemia (CLI). Average treatment length was 15.7 cm, average runoff score was 4.6. Overall 36-month primary, primary-assisted, and secondary rates were 52%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Limb salvage was 75% in CLI patients. No limbs were lost following interventions in claudicants (mean follow-up 16 months). In 24 patients with stent occlusion, 15 underwent endovascular revision, only five (33%) ultimately remained patent (15.8 months after reintervention). In contrast, all nine reinterventions for in-stent stenosis remained patent (17.8 months). Of 24 patients who underwent 37 endovascular revisions for either occlusion or stenosis, eight (35%) had worsening of their runoff score (4.1 to 6.4). By Cox proportional hazards analysis, hypertension (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35), TASC D lesions (HR 5.5), and runoff score > 5 (HR 2.6) significantly affected primary patency. Conclusions: Self-expanding stents produce acceptable outcomes for treatment of SFA disease. Poorer patency rates are associated with TASC D lesions and poor initial runoff score; HTN was associated with improved patency rates. Stent occlusion and in-stent stenosis were not entirely benign; one-third of patients had deterioration of their tibial artery runoff. Future studies of SFA interventions need to stratify TASC classification and runoff score. Further evaluation of the long-term effects of SFA stenting on tibial runoff is needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine