Contingency, Realism, and the Expansion Method

John P Jones, Robert Q. Hanham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Scopus citations


This paper examines the relationship between scientific realism and the expansion method. The frame of reference for our investigation is their joint conceptualization of “contingency.” We first explore the varied historical meanings of contingency; this is followed by a survey of its differential deployment within geographic thought. Attention then turns to theorizations of contingency in realism and the expansion method. The final portion of the paper assesses the potential for integrating these two analytic traditions within geographic research. 1995 The Ohio State University

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-207
Number of pages23
JournalGeographical Analysis
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Earth-Surface Processes

Cite this