We examined the relative contribution of pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and sleep apnea) to mortality risks associated with Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) independent of other medical conditions, health risks, and sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a large US-based case series of patients with COVID-19, captured from a quaternary academic health network covering New York City and Long Island. From March 2 to May 24, 2020, 11,512 patients who were hospitalized were tested for COVID-19, with 4,446 (38.62%) receiving a positive diagnosis for COVID-19. Among those who tested positive, 959 (21.57%) died of COVID-19-related complications at the hospital. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling showed mortality risks were strongly associated with greater age (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.04–1.05), ethnic minority (Asians, Non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics) (HR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10–1.44), low household income (HR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.49), and male sex (HR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.97). Higher mortality risks were also associated with a history of COPD (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02–1.58), obesity (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.04–1.37), and peripheral artery disease (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05–1.69). Findings indicate patients with COPD had the highest odds of COVID-19 mortality compared with patients with pre-existing metabolic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Sociodemographic factors including increased age, male sex, low household income, ethnic minority status were also independently associated with greater mortality risks.
- ethnic minority
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine