Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa

Review of achievements and potential

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

144 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Malaria vector control targeting the larval stages of mosquitoes was applied successfully against many species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malarious countries until the mid-20th Century. Since the introduction of DDT in the 1940s and the associated development of indoor residual spraying (IRS), which usually has a more powerful impact than larval control on vectorial capacity, the focus of malaria prevention programmes has shifted to the control of adult vectors. In the Afrotropical Region, where malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles funestus Giles and members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, gaps in information on larval ecology and the ability of An. gambiae sensu lato to exploit a wide variety of larval habitats have discouraged efforts to develop and implement larval control strategies. Opportunities to complement adulticiding with other components of integrated vector management, along with concerns about insecticide resistance, environmental impacts, rising costs of IRS and logistical constraints, have stimulated renewed interest in larval control of malaria vectors. Techniques include environmental management, involving the temporary or permanent removal of anopheline larval habitats, as well as larviciding with chemical or biological agents. This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years. Although such studies are limited in number and scope, their results suggest that targeting larvae, particularly in human-made habitats, can significantly reduce malaria transmission in appropriate settings. These approaches are especially suitable for urban areas, where larval habitats are limited, particularly when applied in conjunction with IRS and other adulticidal measures, such as the use of insecticide treated bednets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2-21
Number of pages20
JournalMedical and Veterinary Entomology
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2007

Fingerprint

Anopheles
malaria
Malaria
Ecosystem
spraying
Anopheles gambiae
habitat
habitats
Culicidae
targeting
insecticide
Insecticide-Treated Bednets
Anopheles funestus
vectorial capacity
Afrotropical Region
Insecticide Resistance
Aptitude
DDT
vector control
insecticide resistance

Keywords

  • Anopheles funestus
  • Anopheles gambiae complex
  • Bacterial larvicides
  • Drainage
  • Environmental management
  • Irrigation
  • IRS
  • ITN
  • IVM
  • Larval control
  • Larvicide
  • Larvivorous fish
  • Malaria vector control
  • Mosquito larvae
  • Tropical Africa
  • Water management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{57b7c7dc7a674f2980cd35e41b7bcd0f,
title = "Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa: Review of achievements and potential",
abstract = "Malaria vector control targeting the larval stages of mosquitoes was applied successfully against many species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malarious countries until the mid-20th Century. Since the introduction of DDT in the 1940s and the associated development of indoor residual spraying (IRS), which usually has a more powerful impact than larval control on vectorial capacity, the focus of malaria prevention programmes has shifted to the control of adult vectors. In the Afrotropical Region, where malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles funestus Giles and members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, gaps in information on larval ecology and the ability of An. gambiae sensu lato to exploit a wide variety of larval habitats have discouraged efforts to develop and implement larval control strategies. Opportunities to complement adulticiding with other components of integrated vector management, along with concerns about insecticide resistance, environmental impacts, rising costs of IRS and logistical constraints, have stimulated renewed interest in larval control of malaria vectors. Techniques include environmental management, involving the temporary or permanent removal of anopheline larval habitats, as well as larviciding with chemical or biological agents. This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years. Although such studies are limited in number and scope, their results suggest that targeting larvae, particularly in human-made habitats, can significantly reduce malaria transmission in appropriate settings. These approaches are especially suitable for urban areas, where larval habitats are limited, particularly when applied in conjunction with IRS and other adulticidal measures, such as the use of insecticide treated bednets.",
keywords = "Anopheles funestus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Bacterial larvicides, Drainage, Environmental management, Irrigation, IRS, ITN, IVM, Larval control, Larvicide, Larvivorous fish, Malaria vector control, Mosquito larvae, Tropical Africa, Water management",
author = "Walker, {Kathleen R} and M. Lynch",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2915.2007.00674.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "21",
pages = "2--21",
journal = "Medical and Veterinary Entomology",
issn = "0269-283X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa

T2 - Review of achievements and potential

AU - Walker, Kathleen R

AU - Lynch, M.

PY - 2007/3

Y1 - 2007/3

N2 - Malaria vector control targeting the larval stages of mosquitoes was applied successfully against many species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malarious countries until the mid-20th Century. Since the introduction of DDT in the 1940s and the associated development of indoor residual spraying (IRS), which usually has a more powerful impact than larval control on vectorial capacity, the focus of malaria prevention programmes has shifted to the control of adult vectors. In the Afrotropical Region, where malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles funestus Giles and members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, gaps in information on larval ecology and the ability of An. gambiae sensu lato to exploit a wide variety of larval habitats have discouraged efforts to develop and implement larval control strategies. Opportunities to complement adulticiding with other components of integrated vector management, along with concerns about insecticide resistance, environmental impacts, rising costs of IRS and logistical constraints, have stimulated renewed interest in larval control of malaria vectors. Techniques include environmental management, involving the temporary or permanent removal of anopheline larval habitats, as well as larviciding with chemical or biological agents. This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years. Although such studies are limited in number and scope, their results suggest that targeting larvae, particularly in human-made habitats, can significantly reduce malaria transmission in appropriate settings. These approaches are especially suitable for urban areas, where larval habitats are limited, particularly when applied in conjunction with IRS and other adulticidal measures, such as the use of insecticide treated bednets.

AB - Malaria vector control targeting the larval stages of mosquitoes was applied successfully against many species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malarious countries until the mid-20th Century. Since the introduction of DDT in the 1940s and the associated development of indoor residual spraying (IRS), which usually has a more powerful impact than larval control on vectorial capacity, the focus of malaria prevention programmes has shifted to the control of adult vectors. In the Afrotropical Region, where malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles funestus Giles and members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, gaps in information on larval ecology and the ability of An. gambiae sensu lato to exploit a wide variety of larval habitats have discouraged efforts to develop and implement larval control strategies. Opportunities to complement adulticiding with other components of integrated vector management, along with concerns about insecticide resistance, environmental impacts, rising costs of IRS and logistical constraints, have stimulated renewed interest in larval control of malaria vectors. Techniques include environmental management, involving the temporary or permanent removal of anopheline larval habitats, as well as larviciding with chemical or biological agents. This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years. Although such studies are limited in number and scope, their results suggest that targeting larvae, particularly in human-made habitats, can significantly reduce malaria transmission in appropriate settings. These approaches are especially suitable for urban areas, where larval habitats are limited, particularly when applied in conjunction with IRS and other adulticidal measures, such as the use of insecticide treated bednets.

KW - Anopheles funestus

KW - Anopheles gambiae complex

KW - Bacterial larvicides

KW - Drainage

KW - Environmental management

KW - Irrigation

KW - IRS

KW - ITN

KW - IVM

KW - Larval control

KW - Larvicide

KW - Larvivorous fish

KW - Malaria vector control

KW - Mosquito larvae

KW - Tropical Africa

KW - Water management

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947304184&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33947304184&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2007.00674.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2007.00674.x

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 2

EP - 21

JO - Medical and Veterinary Entomology

JF - Medical and Veterinary Entomology

SN - 0269-283X

IS - 1

ER -