Controlled, stepwise reduction and band gap manipulation of graphene oxide

Akshay Mathkar, Dylan Tozier, Paris Cox, Peijie Ong, Charudatta Galande, Kaushik Balakrishnan, Arava Leela Mohana Reddy, Pulickel M. Ajayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

250 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) has drawn tremendous interest as a tunable precursor in numerous areas, due to its readily manipulable surface. However, its inhomogeneous and nonstoichiometric structure makes achieving chemical control a major challenge. Here, we present a room-temperature based, controlled method for the stepwise reduction of GO, with evidence of sequential removal of each organic moiety. By analyzing signature infrared absorption frequencies, we identify the carbonyl group as the first to be reduced, while the tertiary alcohol takes the longest to be completely removed from the GO surface. Controlled reduction allows for progressive tuning of the optical gap from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV, while XPS spectra show a concurrent increase in the C/O ratio. This study is the first step toward selectively enhancing the chemical homogeneity of GO, thus providing greater control over its structure, and elucidating the order of removal of functional groups and hydrazine-vapor reduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)986-991
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Volume3
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 19 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Graphite
Oxides
Graphene
manipulators
graphene
Energy gap
hydrazine
oxides
Hydrazine
Infrared absorption
hydrazines
Functional groups
infrared absorption
homogeneity
alcohols
Alcohols
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Tuning
Vapors
tuning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Controlled, stepwise reduction and band gap manipulation of graphene oxide. / Mathkar, Akshay; Tozier, Dylan; Cox, Paris; Ong, Peijie; Galande, Charudatta; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Leela Mohana Reddy, Arava; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 3, No. 8, 19.04.2012, p. 986-991.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mathkar, A, Tozier, D, Cox, P, Ong, P, Galande, C, Balakrishnan, K, Leela Mohana Reddy, A & Ajayan, PM 2012, 'Controlled, stepwise reduction and band gap manipulation of graphene oxide', Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 986-991. https://doi.org/10.1021/jz300096t
Mathkar, Akshay ; Tozier, Dylan ; Cox, Paris ; Ong, Peijie ; Galande, Charudatta ; Balakrishnan, Kaushik ; Leela Mohana Reddy, Arava ; Ajayan, Pulickel M. / Controlled, stepwise reduction and band gap manipulation of graphene oxide. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 2012 ; Vol. 3, No. 8. pp. 986-991.
@article{1fdc5c1d9bb342b49c94c1c75064df59,
title = "Controlled, stepwise reduction and band gap manipulation of graphene oxide",
abstract = "Graphene oxide (GO) has drawn tremendous interest as a tunable precursor in numerous areas, due to its readily manipulable surface. However, its inhomogeneous and nonstoichiometric structure makes achieving chemical control a major challenge. Here, we present a room-temperature based, controlled method for the stepwise reduction of GO, with evidence of sequential removal of each organic moiety. By analyzing signature infrared absorption frequencies, we identify the carbonyl group as the first to be reduced, while the tertiary alcohol takes the longest to be completely removed from the GO surface. Controlled reduction allows for progressive tuning of the optical gap from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV, while XPS spectra show a concurrent increase in the C/O ratio. This study is the first step toward selectively enhancing the chemical homogeneity of GO, thus providing greater control over its structure, and elucidating the order of removal of functional groups and hydrazine-vapor reduction.",
author = "Akshay Mathkar and Dylan Tozier and Paris Cox and Peijie Ong and Charudatta Galande and Kaushik Balakrishnan and {Leela Mohana Reddy}, Arava and Ajayan, {Pulickel M.}",
year = "2012",
month = "4",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1021/jz300096t",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "3",
pages = "986--991",
journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters",
issn = "1948-7185",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Controlled, stepwise reduction and band gap manipulation of graphene oxide

AU - Mathkar, Akshay

AU - Tozier, Dylan

AU - Cox, Paris

AU - Ong, Peijie

AU - Galande, Charudatta

AU - Balakrishnan, Kaushik

AU - Leela Mohana Reddy, Arava

AU - Ajayan, Pulickel M.

PY - 2012/4/19

Y1 - 2012/4/19

N2 - Graphene oxide (GO) has drawn tremendous interest as a tunable precursor in numerous areas, due to its readily manipulable surface. However, its inhomogeneous and nonstoichiometric structure makes achieving chemical control a major challenge. Here, we present a room-temperature based, controlled method for the stepwise reduction of GO, with evidence of sequential removal of each organic moiety. By analyzing signature infrared absorption frequencies, we identify the carbonyl group as the first to be reduced, while the tertiary alcohol takes the longest to be completely removed from the GO surface. Controlled reduction allows for progressive tuning of the optical gap from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV, while XPS spectra show a concurrent increase in the C/O ratio. This study is the first step toward selectively enhancing the chemical homogeneity of GO, thus providing greater control over its structure, and elucidating the order of removal of functional groups and hydrazine-vapor reduction.

AB - Graphene oxide (GO) has drawn tremendous interest as a tunable precursor in numerous areas, due to its readily manipulable surface. However, its inhomogeneous and nonstoichiometric structure makes achieving chemical control a major challenge. Here, we present a room-temperature based, controlled method for the stepwise reduction of GO, with evidence of sequential removal of each organic moiety. By analyzing signature infrared absorption frequencies, we identify the carbonyl group as the first to be reduced, while the tertiary alcohol takes the longest to be completely removed from the GO surface. Controlled reduction allows for progressive tuning of the optical gap from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV, while XPS spectra show a concurrent increase in the C/O ratio. This study is the first step toward selectively enhancing the chemical homogeneity of GO, thus providing greater control over its structure, and elucidating the order of removal of functional groups and hydrazine-vapor reduction.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84860180777&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84860180777&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/jz300096t

DO - 10.1021/jz300096t

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84860180777

VL - 3

SP - 986

EP - 991

JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

SN - 1948-7185

IS - 8

ER -