Convenient new chemical actinometer based on aqueous acetone, 2-propanol, and carbon tetrachloride

Heng Li, Eric Betterton, Robert G Arnold, Wendell P Ela, Brian Barbaris, Cecilio Grachane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A convenient new chemical actinometer was developed to measure the spectral output of laboratory ultraviolet (UV) light sources over the wavelength range of 260-330 nm. It can also be used to measure solar UV irradiance (≤325 nm). The actinometer is based on the photoreduction of aqueous carbon tetrachloride (CT) to chloroform (CF) in the presence of acetone (the chromophore) and 2-propanol (the reductant). In all cases, CT disappearance (and CF formation) followed zero-order kinetics over 95% of the reaction. The slope of the linear decay curve forms the basis of the new actinometer, which was calibrated using ferrioxalate actinometry. Quantum yields were measured at 10 nm intervals and were found to be uniform throughout the range of 260-300 nm. As expected, quantum yields gradually decreased to zero as the wavelength was increased from 300 to 340 nm. The high quantum yields (≈150), low sensitivity to room light, and the straightforward determination of [CT] and [CF] by gas chromatography offer significant advantages over some other chemical actinometers, which might require the preparation and purification of light-sensitive compounds in a darkened environment and long exposure times.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2262-2266
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume39
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2005

Fingerprint

Carbon tetrachloride
2-Propanol
Carbon Tetrachloride
Propanol
Quantum yield
Chloroform
Chlorine compounds
chloroform
Acetone
acetone
carbon
wavelength
Wavelength
Reducing Agents
Chromophores
Gas chromatography
Purification
irradiance
purification
Light sources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Convenient new chemical actinometer based on aqueous acetone, 2-propanol, and carbon tetrachloride. / Li, Heng; Betterton, Eric; Arnold, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P; Barbaris, Brian; Grachane, Cecilio.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 7, 01.04.2005, p. 2262-2266.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{240bbf08461a47b9850e93bbf45f5af0,
title = "Convenient new chemical actinometer based on aqueous acetone, 2-propanol, and carbon tetrachloride",
abstract = "A convenient new chemical actinometer was developed to measure the spectral output of laboratory ultraviolet (UV) light sources over the wavelength range of 260-330 nm. It can also be used to measure solar UV irradiance (≤325 nm). The actinometer is based on the photoreduction of aqueous carbon tetrachloride (CT) to chloroform (CF) in the presence of acetone (the chromophore) and 2-propanol (the reductant). In all cases, CT disappearance (and CF formation) followed zero-order kinetics over 95{\%} of the reaction. The slope of the linear decay curve forms the basis of the new actinometer, which was calibrated using ferrioxalate actinometry. Quantum yields were measured at 10 nm intervals and were found to be uniform throughout the range of 260-300 nm. As expected, quantum yields gradually decreased to zero as the wavelength was increased from 300 to 340 nm. The high quantum yields (≈150), low sensitivity to room light, and the straightforward determination of [CT] and [CF] by gas chromatography offer significant advantages over some other chemical actinometers, which might require the preparation and purification of light-sensitive compounds in a darkened environment and long exposure times.",
author = "Heng Li and Eric Betterton and Arnold, {Robert G} and Ela, {Wendell P} and Brian Barbaris and Cecilio Grachane",
year = "2005",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/es050046y",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "39",
pages = "2262--2266",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Convenient new chemical actinometer based on aqueous acetone, 2-propanol, and carbon tetrachloride

AU - Li, Heng

AU - Betterton, Eric

AU - Arnold, Robert G

AU - Ela, Wendell P

AU - Barbaris, Brian

AU - Grachane, Cecilio

PY - 2005/4/1

Y1 - 2005/4/1

N2 - A convenient new chemical actinometer was developed to measure the spectral output of laboratory ultraviolet (UV) light sources over the wavelength range of 260-330 nm. It can also be used to measure solar UV irradiance (≤325 nm). The actinometer is based on the photoreduction of aqueous carbon tetrachloride (CT) to chloroform (CF) in the presence of acetone (the chromophore) and 2-propanol (the reductant). In all cases, CT disappearance (and CF formation) followed zero-order kinetics over 95% of the reaction. The slope of the linear decay curve forms the basis of the new actinometer, which was calibrated using ferrioxalate actinometry. Quantum yields were measured at 10 nm intervals and were found to be uniform throughout the range of 260-300 nm. As expected, quantum yields gradually decreased to zero as the wavelength was increased from 300 to 340 nm. The high quantum yields (≈150), low sensitivity to room light, and the straightforward determination of [CT] and [CF] by gas chromatography offer significant advantages over some other chemical actinometers, which might require the preparation and purification of light-sensitive compounds in a darkened environment and long exposure times.

AB - A convenient new chemical actinometer was developed to measure the spectral output of laboratory ultraviolet (UV) light sources over the wavelength range of 260-330 nm. It can also be used to measure solar UV irradiance (≤325 nm). The actinometer is based on the photoreduction of aqueous carbon tetrachloride (CT) to chloroform (CF) in the presence of acetone (the chromophore) and 2-propanol (the reductant). In all cases, CT disappearance (and CF formation) followed zero-order kinetics over 95% of the reaction. The slope of the linear decay curve forms the basis of the new actinometer, which was calibrated using ferrioxalate actinometry. Quantum yields were measured at 10 nm intervals and were found to be uniform throughout the range of 260-300 nm. As expected, quantum yields gradually decreased to zero as the wavelength was increased from 300 to 340 nm. The high quantum yields (≈150), low sensitivity to room light, and the straightforward determination of [CT] and [CF] by gas chromatography offer significant advantages over some other chemical actinometers, which might require the preparation and purification of light-sensitive compounds in a darkened environment and long exposure times.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=16844364776&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=16844364776&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/es050046y

DO - 10.1021/es050046y

M3 - Article

C2 - 15871262

AN - SCOPUS:16844364776

VL - 39

SP - 2262

EP - 2266

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 7

ER -