COPSS II: THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF TEN MILLION CUBIC MEGAPARSECS AT REDSHIFT z ∼ 3

Garrett K. Keating, Daniel P Marrone, Geoffrey C. Bower, Erik Leitch, John E. Carlstrom, David R. Deboer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a measurement of the abundance of carbon monoxide in the early universe, utilizing the final results from the CO Power Spectrum Survey (COPSS). Between 2013 and 2015, we performed observations with the Sunyaev-Zel dovich Array to measure aggregate CO emission from z ∼ 3 galaxies with the intensity mapping technique. Data were collected on 19 fields, covering an area of 0.7 square degrees, over the frequency range 27-35 GHz. With these data, along with data analyzed in COPSS I, we are able to observe the CO(1-0) transition within the redshift range z = 2.3-3.3 for spatial frequencies between k = 0.5-10 h Mpc-1, spanning a comoving volume of 4.9 × 106 h-3 Mpc3. We present estimates of contributions from continuum sources and ground illumination within our measurement. We constrain the amplitude of the CO power spectrum to PCO = 3.0-1.3 +1.3 × 103 μK2(h-1 Mpc)3, or Δ2 CO(k = 1 h Mpc-1) = 1.5+0.7 -0.7 × 103 μK2, at 68% confidence, and PCO > 0 at 98.9% confidence. These results are a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to those of COPSS I. With this measurement, we constrain on the CO(1-0) galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 3. Assuming that CO emission is proportional to halo mass and using theoretical estimates of the scatter in this relationship, we constrain the ratio of CO(1-0) luminosity to halo mass to ACO = 6.3+1.4 -2.1 × 10-7 LO MO -1. Assuming a Milky Way-like linear relationship between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass, we estimate a mass fraction of molecular gas of fH2 = 5.5+3.4 -2.2 × 10-2 for halos with masses of ∼1012MO. Using theoretical estimates for the scaling of molecular gas mass fraction and halo mass, we estimate the cosmic molecular gas density to be ρz∼3(H2) = 1.1+0.7 -0.4 × 108 MO Mpc-3.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number34
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume830
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 10 2016

Fingerprint

molecular gases
power spectra
gas
halos
estimates
luminosity
confidence
cosmic gases
galaxies
gas density
carbon monoxide
coverings
universe
frequency ranges
illumination
continuums
scaling
sensitivity
gases

Keywords

  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • ISM: molecules
  • methods: statistical

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

COPSS II : THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF TEN MILLION CUBIC MEGAPARSECS AT REDSHIFT z ∼ 3. / Keating, Garrett K.; Marrone, Daniel P; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Leitch, Erik; Carlstrom, John E.; Deboer, David R.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 830, No. 1, 34, 10.10.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Keating, Garrett K. ; Marrone, Daniel P ; Bower, Geoffrey C. ; Leitch, Erik ; Carlstrom, John E. ; Deboer, David R. / COPSS II : THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF TEN MILLION CUBIC MEGAPARSECS AT REDSHIFT z ∼ 3. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 830, No. 1.
@article{1bca0fd5036a4b468d17732252301e55,
title = "COPSS II: THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF TEN MILLION CUBIC MEGAPARSECS AT REDSHIFT z ∼ 3",
abstract = "We present a measurement of the abundance of carbon monoxide in the early universe, utilizing the final results from the CO Power Spectrum Survey (COPSS). Between 2013 and 2015, we performed observations with the Sunyaev-Zel dovich Array to measure aggregate CO emission from z ∼ 3 galaxies with the intensity mapping technique. Data were collected on 19 fields, covering an area of 0.7 square degrees, over the frequency range 27-35 GHz. With these data, along with data analyzed in COPSS I, we are able to observe the CO(1-0) transition within the redshift range z = 2.3-3.3 for spatial frequencies between k = 0.5-10 h Mpc-1, spanning a comoving volume of 4.9 × 106 h-3 Mpc3. We present estimates of contributions from continuum sources and ground illumination within our measurement. We constrain the amplitude of the CO power spectrum to PCO = 3.0-1.3 +1.3 × 103 μK2(h-1 Mpc)3, or Δ2 CO(k = 1 h Mpc-1) = 1.5+0.7 -0.7 × 103 μK2, at 68{\%} confidence, and PCO > 0 at 98.9{\%} confidence. These results are a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to those of COPSS I. With this measurement, we constrain on the CO(1-0) galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 3. Assuming that CO emission is proportional to halo mass and using theoretical estimates of the scatter in this relationship, we constrain the ratio of CO(1-0) luminosity to halo mass to ACO = 6.3+1.4 -2.1 × 10-7 LO MO -1. Assuming a Milky Way-like linear relationship between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass, we estimate a mass fraction of molecular gas of fH2 = 5.5+3.4 -2.2 × 10-2 for halos with masses of ∼1012MO. Using theoretical estimates for the scaling of molecular gas mass fraction and halo mass, we estimate the cosmic molecular gas density to be ρz∼3(H2) = 1.1+0.7 -0.4 × 108 MO Mpc-3.",
keywords = "galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high-redshift, ISM: molecules, methods: statistical",
author = "Keating, {Garrett K.} and Marrone, {Daniel P} and Bower, {Geoffrey C.} and Erik Leitch and Carlstrom, {John E.} and Deboer, {David R.}",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "10",
doi = "10.3847/0004-637X/830/1/34",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "830",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - COPSS II

T2 - THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF TEN MILLION CUBIC MEGAPARSECS AT REDSHIFT z ∼ 3

AU - Keating, Garrett K.

AU - Marrone, Daniel P

AU - Bower, Geoffrey C.

AU - Leitch, Erik

AU - Carlstrom, John E.

AU - Deboer, David R.

PY - 2016/10/10

Y1 - 2016/10/10

N2 - We present a measurement of the abundance of carbon monoxide in the early universe, utilizing the final results from the CO Power Spectrum Survey (COPSS). Between 2013 and 2015, we performed observations with the Sunyaev-Zel dovich Array to measure aggregate CO emission from z ∼ 3 galaxies with the intensity mapping technique. Data were collected on 19 fields, covering an area of 0.7 square degrees, over the frequency range 27-35 GHz. With these data, along with data analyzed in COPSS I, we are able to observe the CO(1-0) transition within the redshift range z = 2.3-3.3 for spatial frequencies between k = 0.5-10 h Mpc-1, spanning a comoving volume of 4.9 × 106 h-3 Mpc3. We present estimates of contributions from continuum sources and ground illumination within our measurement. We constrain the amplitude of the CO power spectrum to PCO = 3.0-1.3 +1.3 × 103 μK2(h-1 Mpc)3, or Δ2 CO(k = 1 h Mpc-1) = 1.5+0.7 -0.7 × 103 μK2, at 68% confidence, and PCO > 0 at 98.9% confidence. These results are a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to those of COPSS I. With this measurement, we constrain on the CO(1-0) galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 3. Assuming that CO emission is proportional to halo mass and using theoretical estimates of the scatter in this relationship, we constrain the ratio of CO(1-0) luminosity to halo mass to ACO = 6.3+1.4 -2.1 × 10-7 LO MO -1. Assuming a Milky Way-like linear relationship between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass, we estimate a mass fraction of molecular gas of fH2 = 5.5+3.4 -2.2 × 10-2 for halos with masses of ∼1012MO. Using theoretical estimates for the scaling of molecular gas mass fraction and halo mass, we estimate the cosmic molecular gas density to be ρz∼3(H2) = 1.1+0.7 -0.4 × 108 MO Mpc-3.

AB - We present a measurement of the abundance of carbon monoxide in the early universe, utilizing the final results from the CO Power Spectrum Survey (COPSS). Between 2013 and 2015, we performed observations with the Sunyaev-Zel dovich Array to measure aggregate CO emission from z ∼ 3 galaxies with the intensity mapping technique. Data were collected on 19 fields, covering an area of 0.7 square degrees, over the frequency range 27-35 GHz. With these data, along with data analyzed in COPSS I, we are able to observe the CO(1-0) transition within the redshift range z = 2.3-3.3 for spatial frequencies between k = 0.5-10 h Mpc-1, spanning a comoving volume of 4.9 × 106 h-3 Mpc3. We present estimates of contributions from continuum sources and ground illumination within our measurement. We constrain the amplitude of the CO power spectrum to PCO = 3.0-1.3 +1.3 × 103 μK2(h-1 Mpc)3, or Δ2 CO(k = 1 h Mpc-1) = 1.5+0.7 -0.7 × 103 μK2, at 68% confidence, and PCO > 0 at 98.9% confidence. These results are a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to those of COPSS I. With this measurement, we constrain on the CO(1-0) galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 3. Assuming that CO emission is proportional to halo mass and using theoretical estimates of the scatter in this relationship, we constrain the ratio of CO(1-0) luminosity to halo mass to ACO = 6.3+1.4 -2.1 × 10-7 LO MO -1. Assuming a Milky Way-like linear relationship between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass, we estimate a mass fraction of molecular gas of fH2 = 5.5+3.4 -2.2 × 10-2 for halos with masses of ∼1012MO. Using theoretical estimates for the scaling of molecular gas mass fraction and halo mass, we estimate the cosmic molecular gas density to be ρz∼3(H2) = 1.1+0.7 -0.4 × 108 MO Mpc-3.

KW - galaxies: evolution

KW - galaxies: high-redshift

KW - ISM: molecules

KW - methods: statistical

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84994384362&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84994384362&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/0004-637X/830/1/34

DO - 10.3847/0004-637X/830/1/34

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84994384362

VL - 830

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

M1 - 34

ER -