Costing for an autonomous future: A discussion on estimation for unmanned autonomous systems

Thomas R. Ryan, Ricardo Valerdi

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


This paper will produce three areas of discussion in the field of cost estimation for unmanned autonomous systems. First, this paper will propose a common definition of an Unmanned Autonomous system. Second, it will introduce a method to estimate the cost of unmanned autonomous systems utilizing existing parametric cost estimation tools: SEER-HDR, COCOMO II, COSYSMO, and two relationships-weight and performance. The third discussion will focus on challenges surrounding autonomy. To address these challenges from a cost perspective, this paper recommends modifications to parameters within COCOMO II-via the use of object oriented function points in lieu of current methods, and COSYSMO-via the introduction of two cost driving parameters, namely, TVED and HRI-T. Finally, in summary this paper will identify areas of further research.


  • Autonomous Cost Estimating Relationships
  • Autonomous Integration
  • Evaluation
  • Human Robot Interaction
  • Manned Unmanned Teaming
  • Parametric Cost Estimation
  • Test
  • Unmanned Autonomous Systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)

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