Crack use and correlates of use in a national population of street heroin users†

The National AIDS Research Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Traditionally, researchers and clinicians have viewed street heroin users as representing an end point in a drug-using career. It is toward this population that major national treatment efforts have been directed. Concomitant with the historical national concern about heroin use has been concern about the increase in crack cocaine use. There has been speculation that crack use may have become a substitute for the higher risk of heroin injection. This article examines the impact of crack use in a national population of heroin users. It was consistently found that there was a correlation between the frequency of crack use and the frequency of speedballing as well as the use of other forms of cocaine, amphetamines, and marijuana. There was also a positive relationship between frequency of crack use and such HIV risk behaviors as renting needles and having a large number of sex partners. The data suggest that in this population of heroin users, crack is not a substitute for heroin but rather is a part of a drug-use pattern that includes an increased use of other drugs and increased high-risk behaviors for contracting HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-416
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Psychoactive Drugs
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Heroin
Population
Risk-Taking
HIV
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Crack Cocaine
Amphetamines
Cannabis
Cocaine
Needles
Research Personnel
Injections

Keywords

  • Correlates of use
  • Crack cocaine
  • Heroin
  • HIV high-risk behaviors
  • Injecting drug users

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

Crack use and correlates of use in a national population of street heroin users†. / The National AIDS Research Consortium.

In: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1992, p. 411-416.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

The National AIDS Research Consortium. / Crack use and correlates of use in a national population of street heroin users†. In: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1992 ; Vol. 24, No. 4. pp. 411-416.
@article{b802c6a2621748fb84b9d8df162f2b16,
title = "Crack use and correlates of use in a national population of street heroin users†",
abstract = "Traditionally, researchers and clinicians have viewed street heroin users as representing an end point in a drug-using career. It is toward this population that major national treatment efforts have been directed. Concomitant with the historical national concern about heroin use has been concern about the increase in crack cocaine use. There has been speculation that crack use may have become a substitute for the higher risk of heroin injection. This article examines the impact of crack use in a national population of heroin users. It was consistently found that there was a correlation between the frequency of crack use and the frequency of speedballing as well as the use of other forms of cocaine, amphetamines, and marijuana. There was also a positive relationship between frequency of crack use and such HIV risk behaviors as renting needles and having a large number of sex partners. The data suggest that in this population of heroin users, crack is not a substitute for heroin but rather is a part of a drug-use pattern that includes an increased use of other drugs and increased high-risk behaviors for contracting HIV.",
keywords = "Correlates of use, Crack cocaine, Heroin, HIV high-risk behaviors, Injecting drug users",
author = "{The National AIDS Research Consortium} and McBride, {Duane C.} and Inciardi, {James A.} and Chitwood, {Dale D.} and McCoy, {Clyde B.} and Marcia Andersen and Robert Baxter and Sandra Baxter and George Beschner and Patrick Biernacki and Stanley Broadnax and Vivian Brown and Larry DeNeal and Sherry Deren and Estrada, {Antonio L} and David Fleming and Samuel Friedman and Sena Gates and Peggy Glider and Ted Hammett and Dana Hult and Lynne Kotranski and Clyde McCoy and Josette Mondanaro and Harvey Musikoff and Richard Needle and Fen Rhodes and Rafaela Robles and Roy Ross and Bruce Rounsaville and Jean Schensul and Vernon Shorty and Harvey Siegal and Merrill Singer and Frederick Snyder and Barbara Sowder and Richard Stephens and Stevens, {Sally J} and Kenneth Vogtsberger and Judith Walton and Deena Watson and Wayne Weibel and Mark Williams and Robert Wood",
year = "1992",
doi = "10.1080/02791072.1992.10471665",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "24",
pages = "411--416",
journal = "Journal of Psychoactive Drugs",
issn = "0279-1072",
publisher = "Haight-Ashbury Publications",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Crack use and correlates of use in a national population of street heroin users†

AU - The National AIDS Research Consortium

AU - McBride, Duane C.

AU - Inciardi, James A.

AU - Chitwood, Dale D.

AU - McCoy, Clyde B.

AU - Andersen, Marcia

AU - Baxter, Robert

AU - Baxter, Sandra

AU - Beschner, George

AU - Biernacki, Patrick

AU - Broadnax, Stanley

AU - Brown, Vivian

AU - DeNeal, Larry

AU - Deren, Sherry

AU - Estrada, Antonio L

AU - Fleming, David

AU - Friedman, Samuel

AU - Gates, Sena

AU - Glider, Peggy

AU - Hammett, Ted

AU - Hult, Dana

AU - Kotranski, Lynne

AU - McCoy, Clyde

AU - Mondanaro, Josette

AU - Musikoff, Harvey

AU - Needle, Richard

AU - Rhodes, Fen

AU - Robles, Rafaela

AU - Ross, Roy

AU - Rounsaville, Bruce

AU - Schensul, Jean

AU - Shorty, Vernon

AU - Siegal, Harvey

AU - Singer, Merrill

AU - Snyder, Frederick

AU - Sowder, Barbara

AU - Stephens, Richard

AU - Stevens, Sally J

AU - Vogtsberger, Kenneth

AU - Walton, Judith

AU - Watson, Deena

AU - Weibel, Wayne

AU - Williams, Mark

AU - Wood, Robert

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - Traditionally, researchers and clinicians have viewed street heroin users as representing an end point in a drug-using career. It is toward this population that major national treatment efforts have been directed. Concomitant with the historical national concern about heroin use has been concern about the increase in crack cocaine use. There has been speculation that crack use may have become a substitute for the higher risk of heroin injection. This article examines the impact of crack use in a national population of heroin users. It was consistently found that there was a correlation between the frequency of crack use and the frequency of speedballing as well as the use of other forms of cocaine, amphetamines, and marijuana. There was also a positive relationship between frequency of crack use and such HIV risk behaviors as renting needles and having a large number of sex partners. The data suggest that in this population of heroin users, crack is not a substitute for heroin but rather is a part of a drug-use pattern that includes an increased use of other drugs and increased high-risk behaviors for contracting HIV.

AB - Traditionally, researchers and clinicians have viewed street heroin users as representing an end point in a drug-using career. It is toward this population that major national treatment efforts have been directed. Concomitant with the historical national concern about heroin use has been concern about the increase in crack cocaine use. There has been speculation that crack use may have become a substitute for the higher risk of heroin injection. This article examines the impact of crack use in a national population of heroin users. It was consistently found that there was a correlation between the frequency of crack use and the frequency of speedballing as well as the use of other forms of cocaine, amphetamines, and marijuana. There was also a positive relationship between frequency of crack use and such HIV risk behaviors as renting needles and having a large number of sex partners. The data suggest that in this population of heroin users, crack is not a substitute for heroin but rather is a part of a drug-use pattern that includes an increased use of other drugs and increased high-risk behaviors for contracting HIV.

KW - Correlates of use

KW - Crack cocaine

KW - Heroin

KW - HIV high-risk behaviors

KW - Injecting drug users

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027059262&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027059262&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/02791072.1992.10471665

DO - 10.1080/02791072.1992.10471665

M3 - Article

C2 - 1491290

AN - SCOPUS:0027059262

VL - 24

SP - 411

EP - 416

JO - Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

JF - Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

SN - 0279-1072

IS - 4

ER -