The widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy conversion technologies, especially in the U.S., is determined by a combination of scientific challenges, economics and energy policy. The Department of Energy has set as a goal the creation of PV platforms that efficiently produce electrical power at a cost of well under $1 per watt installed, which creates breathtaking technical challenges to overcome. This talk will focus on some of the scientific/technical challenges we face in creating 'scalable' (solar cells that can be printed at 100's of meters per day), where materials costs are extremely low, accompanied by low (but increasing) efficiencies. We will review studies underway that allow us to understand and control the critical interfaces in these PV platforms, that currently limit both efficiency an lifetime. We view all of this basic science in the context of a constantly changing political and economic environment for PV-based electricity, and an exciting future for these new PV technologies. Renewable Energy and the Environment Congress.