Crotalus atrox Venom Exposed to Carbon Monoxide Has Decreased Fibrinogenolytic Activity In Vivo in Rabbits

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Envenomation by haemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood. This study sought to translate these findings in an in vivo rabbit model of envenomation with fibrinogenolytic Crotalus atrox venom. Sedated rabbits were intravenously administered C. atrox venom (400 μg/kg) pre-exposed to 0 or 1000 μM carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in vitro. Arterial whole-blood samples demonstrated that compared to pre-envenomation values, the CORM-2-naïve venom significantly prolonged the onset of coagulation, decreased the velocity of clot growth and decreased clot strength as determined by thromboelastography an hour after venom injection. In contrast, CORM-2 pre-exposure prevented or attenuated C. atrox venom effects on coagulation kinetics. Future studies to determine whether rabbits injected with such venom subcutaneously/intramuscularly can have consequent coagulopathy abrogated by injection of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules into the 'bite site' are justified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBasic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

Fingerprint

Crotalus
Venoms
Carbon Monoxide
Rabbits
Coagulation
Molecules
Blood
Thrombelastography
Plasma (human)
Antivenins
Snake Venoms
Injections
Bites and Stings
Enzymes
Morbidity
Kinetics
Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

@article{5e26cda47e474ab4b32eae1ba29b2ff4,
title = "Crotalus atrox Venom Exposed to Carbon Monoxide Has Decreased Fibrinogenolytic Activity In Vivo in Rabbits",
abstract = "Envenomation by haemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood. This study sought to translate these findings in an in vivo rabbit model of envenomation with fibrinogenolytic Crotalus atrox venom. Sedated rabbits were intravenously administered C. atrox venom (400 μg/kg) pre-exposed to 0 or 1000 μM carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in vitro. Arterial whole-blood samples demonstrated that compared to pre-envenomation values, the CORM-2-na{\"i}ve venom significantly prolonged the onset of coagulation, decreased the velocity of clot growth and decreased clot strength as determined by thromboelastography an hour after venom injection. In contrast, CORM-2 pre-exposure prevented or attenuated C. atrox venom effects on coagulation kinetics. Future studies to determine whether rabbits injected with such venom subcutaneously/intramuscularly can have consequent coagulopathy abrogated by injection of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules into the 'bite site' are justified.",
author = "Nielsen, {Vance G}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1111/bcpt.12846",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology",
issn = "1742-7835",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Crotalus atrox Venom Exposed to Carbon Monoxide Has Decreased Fibrinogenolytic Activity In Vivo in Rabbits

AU - Nielsen, Vance G

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Envenomation by haemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood. This study sought to translate these findings in an in vivo rabbit model of envenomation with fibrinogenolytic Crotalus atrox venom. Sedated rabbits were intravenously administered C. atrox venom (400 μg/kg) pre-exposed to 0 or 1000 μM carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in vitro. Arterial whole-blood samples demonstrated that compared to pre-envenomation values, the CORM-2-naïve venom significantly prolonged the onset of coagulation, decreased the velocity of clot growth and decreased clot strength as determined by thromboelastography an hour after venom injection. In contrast, CORM-2 pre-exposure prevented or attenuated C. atrox venom effects on coagulation kinetics. Future studies to determine whether rabbits injected with such venom subcutaneously/intramuscularly can have consequent coagulopathy abrogated by injection of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules into the 'bite site' are justified.

AB - Envenomation by haemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood. This study sought to translate these findings in an in vivo rabbit model of envenomation with fibrinogenolytic Crotalus atrox venom. Sedated rabbits were intravenously administered C. atrox venom (400 μg/kg) pre-exposed to 0 or 1000 μM carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in vitro. Arterial whole-blood samples demonstrated that compared to pre-envenomation values, the CORM-2-naïve venom significantly prolonged the onset of coagulation, decreased the velocity of clot growth and decreased clot strength as determined by thromboelastography an hour after venom injection. In contrast, CORM-2 pre-exposure prevented or attenuated C. atrox venom effects on coagulation kinetics. Future studies to determine whether rabbits injected with such venom subcutaneously/intramuscularly can have consequent coagulopathy abrogated by injection of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules into the 'bite site' are justified.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026831714&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026831714&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/bcpt.12846

DO - 10.1111/bcpt.12846

M3 - Article

JO - Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology

JF - Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology

SN - 1742-7835

ER -