Immunotherapy is receiving increasing attention as an approach to managing HIV-infection and its complications. As the immune response to HIV becomes better understood, new approaches to HIV immunotherapy are possible. Approaches under development include, first and foremost, the use of vaccines, not only for prophylaxis but also for therapy of established disease. Other approaches being studied include passive serotherapy, use of synthetic HIV-binding molecules such as CD4, immunorestoration and immunomodulation with immunomodulatory drugs, thymic hormones, cytokines and anti-infective immunotherapy directed against the opportunistic infecting organisms of HIV. The current role of these modalities as single agents and in combination and their potential role in the future is discussed.
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