Dating the age of the SIV lineages that gave rise to HIV-1 and HIV-2

Joel O. Wertheim, Michael Worobey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

107 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Great strides have been made in understanding the evolutionary history of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and the zoonoses that gave rise to HIV-1 and HIV-2. What remains unknown is how long these SIVs had been circulating in nonhuman primates before the transmissions to humans. Here, we use relaxed molecular clock dating techniques to estimate the time of most recent common ancestor for the SIVs infecting chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, the reservoirs of HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. The date of the most recent common ancestor of SIV in chimpanzees is estimated to be 1492 (1266-1685), and the date in sooty mangabeys is estimated to be 1809 (1729-1875). Notably, we demonstrate that SIV sequences sampled from sooty mangabeys possess sufficient clock-like signal to calibrate a molecular clock; despite the differences in host biology and viral dynamics, the rate of evolution of SIV in sooty mangabeys is indistinguishable from that of its human counterpart, HIV-2. We also estimate the ages of the HIV-2 human-to-human transmissible lineages and provide the first age estimate for HIV-1 group N at 1963 (1948-1977). Comparisons between the SIV most recent common ancestor dates and those of the HIV lineages suggest a difference on the order of only hundreds of years. Our results suggest either that SIV is a surprisingly young lentiviral lineage or that SIV and, perhaps, HIV dating estimates are seriously compromised by unaccounted-for biases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1000377
JournalPLoS Computational Biology
Volume5
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2009

Fingerprint

Human immunodeficiency virus 2
Simian immunodeficiency virus
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV-2
human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Viruses
Cercocebus atys
Virus
HIV-1
virus
Cercocebus
Date
Clocks
common ancestry
ancestry
Pan troglodytes
Estimate
HIV
Zoonoses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Ecology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics

Cite this

Dating the age of the SIV lineages that gave rise to HIV-1 and HIV-2. / Wertheim, Joel O.; Worobey, Michael.

In: PLoS Computational Biology, Vol. 5, No. 5, e1000377, 05.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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