Deep near-infrared observations of L1014: Revealing the nature of the core and its embedded source

Tracy L. Huard, Philip C. Myers, David C. Murphy, Lionel J. Crews, Charles J. Lada, Tyler L. Bourke, Antonio Crapsi, Neal J. Evans, Donald W Mccarthy, Craig Kulesa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope discovered L1014-IRS, a mid-infrared source with protostellar colors, toward the heretofore "starless" core L1014. We present deep near-infrared observations that show a scattered light nebula extending from L1014-IRS. This nebula resembles those typically associated with protostars and young stellar objects, tracing envelope cavities presumably evacuated by an outflow. The northern lobe of the nebula has an opening angle of ∼100°, while the southern lobe is barely detected. Its morphology suggests that the bipolar cavity and inferred protostellar disk are not inclined more than 30° from an edge-on orientation. The nebula extends at least 8″ from the source at KS, strongly suggesting that L1014-IRS is embedded within L1014 at a distance of 200 pc rather than in a more distant cloud associated with the Perseus arm at 2.6 kpc. In this case, the apparently low luminosity of L1014-IRS, 0.090 L, is consistent with it having a substellar mass. However, if L1014-IRS is obscured by a circumstellar disk, its luminosity and inferred mass may be greater. Using near-infrared colors of background stars, we investigate characteristics of the L1014 molecular cloud core. We determine a mass of 3.6M for regions of the core with AV ≥ 2 mag. A comparison of the radial extinction profile of L1014 with other cores suggests that L1014 may be among the most centrally condensed cores known, perhaps indicative of the earliest stages of brown dwarf or star formation processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-401
Number of pages11
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume640
Issue number1 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 20 2006

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Indian spacecraft
near infrared
nebulae
cavity
lobes
luminosity
outflow
color
extinction
cavities
Space Infrared Telescope Facility
protostars
tracing
molecular clouds
star formation
envelopes
stars
profiles

Keywords

  • Dust, extinction
  • Ism: globules
  • Ism: individual (L1014)
  • Reflection nebulae
  • Stars: formation
  • Stars: low-mass, brown dwarfs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Huard, T. L., Myers, P. C., Murphy, D. C., Crews, L. J., Lada, C. J., Bourke, T. L., ... Kulesa, C. (2006). Deep near-infrared observations of L1014: Revealing the nature of the core and its embedded source. Astrophysical Journal, 640(1 I), 391-401. https://doi.org/10.1086/498742

Deep near-infrared observations of L1014 : Revealing the nature of the core and its embedded source. / Huard, Tracy L.; Myers, Philip C.; Murphy, David C.; Crews, Lionel J.; Lada, Charles J.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Crapsi, Antonio; Evans, Neal J.; Mccarthy, Donald W; Kulesa, Craig.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 640, No. 1 I, 20.03.2006, p. 391-401.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huard, TL, Myers, PC, Murphy, DC, Crews, LJ, Lada, CJ, Bourke, TL, Crapsi, A, Evans, NJ, Mccarthy, DW & Kulesa, C 2006, 'Deep near-infrared observations of L1014: Revealing the nature of the core and its embedded source', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 640, no. 1 I, pp. 391-401. https://doi.org/10.1086/498742
Huard TL, Myers PC, Murphy DC, Crews LJ, Lada CJ, Bourke TL et al. Deep near-infrared observations of L1014: Revealing the nature of the core and its embedded source. Astrophysical Journal. 2006 Mar 20;640(1 I):391-401. https://doi.org/10.1086/498742
Huard, Tracy L. ; Myers, Philip C. ; Murphy, David C. ; Crews, Lionel J. ; Lada, Charles J. ; Bourke, Tyler L. ; Crapsi, Antonio ; Evans, Neal J. ; Mccarthy, Donald W ; Kulesa, Craig. / Deep near-infrared observations of L1014 : Revealing the nature of the core and its embedded source. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 640, No. 1 I. pp. 391-401.
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N2 - Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope discovered L1014-IRS, a mid-infrared source with protostellar colors, toward the heretofore "starless" core L1014. We present deep near-infrared observations that show a scattered light nebula extending from L1014-IRS. This nebula resembles those typically associated with protostars and young stellar objects, tracing envelope cavities presumably evacuated by an outflow. The northern lobe of the nebula has an opening angle of ∼100°, while the southern lobe is barely detected. Its morphology suggests that the bipolar cavity and inferred protostellar disk are not inclined more than 30° from an edge-on orientation. The nebula extends at least 8″ from the source at KS, strongly suggesting that L1014-IRS is embedded within L1014 at a distance of 200 pc rather than in a more distant cloud associated with the Perseus arm at 2.6 kpc. In this case, the apparently low luminosity of L1014-IRS, 0.090 L⊙, is consistent with it having a substellar mass. However, if L1014-IRS is obscured by a circumstellar disk, its luminosity and inferred mass may be greater. Using near-infrared colors of background stars, we investigate characteristics of the L1014 molecular cloud core. We determine a mass of 3.6M⊙ for regions of the core with AV ≥ 2 mag. A comparison of the radial extinction profile of L1014 with other cores suggests that L1014 may be among the most centrally condensed cores known, perhaps indicative of the earliest stages of brown dwarf or star formation processes.

AB - Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope discovered L1014-IRS, a mid-infrared source with protostellar colors, toward the heretofore "starless" core L1014. We present deep near-infrared observations that show a scattered light nebula extending from L1014-IRS. This nebula resembles those typically associated with protostars and young stellar objects, tracing envelope cavities presumably evacuated by an outflow. The northern lobe of the nebula has an opening angle of ∼100°, while the southern lobe is barely detected. Its morphology suggests that the bipolar cavity and inferred protostellar disk are not inclined more than 30° from an edge-on orientation. The nebula extends at least 8″ from the source at KS, strongly suggesting that L1014-IRS is embedded within L1014 at a distance of 200 pc rather than in a more distant cloud associated with the Perseus arm at 2.6 kpc. In this case, the apparently low luminosity of L1014-IRS, 0.090 L⊙, is consistent with it having a substellar mass. However, if L1014-IRS is obscured by a circumstellar disk, its luminosity and inferred mass may be greater. Using near-infrared colors of background stars, we investigate characteristics of the L1014 molecular cloud core. We determine a mass of 3.6M⊙ for regions of the core with AV ≥ 2 mag. A comparison of the radial extinction profile of L1014 with other cores suggests that L1014 may be among the most centrally condensed cores known, perhaps indicative of the earliest stages of brown dwarf or star formation processes.

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