Democratic norms and forces of gatekeeping: A study of influences on Iraqi journalists' attitudes toward government information access

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


Gatekeeping theory and the hierarchy of influences model were used as a framework to analyze democratic norm development in Iraq. The study developed three watchdog gatekeeping models that could be adapted for other conflict or postdictatorship environments or modified for longtime democracies. The study used hierarchical regression to analyze forces that influenced attitudes of 588 Iraqi journalists in their gatekeeping role. Individual-level forces, followed by ideologicallevel forces, contributed the most toward watchdog gatekeeping attitudes toward access to government meetings, and news media routine forces contributed the most toward influencing attitudes toward access to government records.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)346-373
Number of pages28
JournalJournalism and Mass Communication Quarterly
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2015



  • Democratic norms
  • Freedom of information
  • Gatekeeping theory
  • Hierarchy of influences model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication

Cite this