Desert wetlands in the geologic record

Jeffrey S. Pigati, Jason A. Rech, Jay Quade, Jordon Bright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-81
Number of pages15
JournalEarth-Science Reviews
Volume132
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2014

Fingerprint

desert
wetland
groundwater
alluvial deposit
ground conditions
clastic sediment
meadow
lacustrine deposit
water table
aid
marsh
flora
pond
fauna
organic matter
water

Keywords

  • Desert
  • Ground water
  • Ostracodes
  • Paleoclimate
  • Paleohydrology
  • Wetland

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

Desert wetlands in the geologic record. / Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon.

In: Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 132, 05.2014, p. 67-81.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pigati, Jeffrey S. ; Rech, Jason A. ; Quade, Jay ; Bright, Jordon. / Desert wetlands in the geologic record. In: Earth-Science Reviews. 2014 ; Vol. 132. pp. 67-81.
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