Developing adaptive secondary mirror concepts for the APF and W.M. Keck Observatory based on HVR technology

Philip M. Hinz, Rachel Bowens-Rubin, Christoph Baranec, Kevin Bundy, Mark Chun, Daren Dillon, Brad Holden, Wouter Jonker, Molly Kosiarek, Renate Kupke, Stefan Kuiper, Olivier Lai, Jessica R. Lu, Matthew Maniscalco, Matthew Radovan, Sam Ragland, Stephanie Sallum, Andrew Skemer, Peter Wizinowich

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


An Adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) allows for the integration of adaptive optics (AO) into the telescope itself. Adaptive secondary mirrors, based on hybrid variable reluctance (HVR) actuator technology, developed by TNO, provide a promising path to telescope-integrated AO. HVR actuators have the advantage of allowing mirrors that are sti↵ er, more power ecient, and potentially less complex than similar, voice-coil based ASM's. We are exploring the application of this technology via a laboratory testbed that will validate the technical approach. In parallel, we are developing conceptual designs for ASMs at several telescopes including the Automated Planet Finder Telescope (APF) and for Keck Observatory. An ASM for APF has the potential to double the light through the slit for radial velocity measurements, and dramatically improved the image stability. An ASM for WMKO enables ground layer AO correction and lower background infrared AO observations, and provides for more flexible deployment of instruments via the ability to adjust the location of the Cassegrain focus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdaptive Optics Systems VII
EditorsLaura Schreiber, Dirk Schmidt, Elise Vernet
ISBN (Electronic)9781510636835
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes
EventAdaptive Optics Systems VII 2020 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: Dec 14 2020Dec 22 2020

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceAdaptive Optics Systems VII 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online


  • Adaptive Optics
  • Adaptive Secondary Mirrors
  • Large Format Deformable Mirrors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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