Development and Psychometric Assessment of the Measure of Globalization Influence on Health Risk (MGIHR) Among Mexican Women with Breast Cancer

Jesse N. Nodora, Scott C Carvajal, Rebeca Robles-Garcia, Francisco Páez Agraz, Adrian Daneri-Navarro, Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro, Luis Enrique Gutierrez-Millan, Maria Elena Martinez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Lacking in the literature are data addressing the extent to which changes in reproductive and lifestyle factors predispose women in developing nations to higher breast cancer rates, and the degree to which these are due to globalization influences. This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of an instrument intended to measure global, predominantly U.S., influences on breast cancer risk profile among women residing in Mexico. Using investigator consensus and a focus group methodology, the Measure of Globalization Influence on Health Risk (MGIHR) was developed and completed by 341 women. Psychometric analysis support the use of an 11-item Consumerism and Modernity scale and 7-item Reproductive Control and Gender Role scale. The MGIHR is a valid and reliable instrument for understanding changing lifestyle and reproductive factors for breast cancer risk and may provide a more complete understanding of breast cancer development and needed interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1025-1032
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 25 2014



  • Breast cancer risk factors
  • Globalization
  • Mexican women
  • Scale validation
  • Westernization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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