Development and validation of ICT self-efficacy scale: Exploring the relationship with cyberbullying and victimization

Sadia Musharraf, Sheri A Bauman, Muhammad Anis-Ul-Haque, Jamil Ahmad Malik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the ICT Self-Efficacy Scale and the association of cyberbullying and victimization with ICT self-efficacy. Sample 1 (436 university students) was used to identify the factor structure of the Scale, and sample 2 (1115 university students) provided the data to confirm the factor structure (CFA), and to compute the internal consistency reliability, and convergent validity of the scale. Findings demonstrate that the new scale is a reliable and valid domain-specific measure to assess ICT Self-Efficacy for university students. Suggestions for further research with the scale are provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2867
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 14 2018



  • Cyber victimization
  • Cyberbullying
  • ICT self-efficacy
  • Pakistan
  • University students

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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