A high bandwidth powered resonance tube (PRT) actuator potentially useful for noise and flow control applications was developed. High bandwidth allows use of the same actuator at various locations on an aircraft and over a range of flight speeds. The actuator selected for bandwidth enhancement was the PRT actuator, which is an adaptation of the Hartmann whistle. The device is capable of producing high-frequency and high-amplitude pressure and velocity perturbations for active flow control applications. Our detailed experiments aimed at understanding the PRT phenomenon are complemented by an improved analytical model and direct numerical simulations. We provide a detailed characterization of the unsteady pressures in the nearfield of the actuator using phase averaged pressure measurements. The measurements revealed that propagating fluctuations at 9 kHz were biased towards the upstream direction (relative to the supply jet). A complementary computational study validated by our experiments was useful in simulating the details in the region between the supply jet and the resonance tube where it was difficult to gather experimental data. High bandwidth was obtained by varying the depth of the resonance tube that determines the frequency produced by the device. Our actuator could produce frequencies ranging from 1600 to 15,000 Hz at amplitudes as high as 160 dB near the source. The frequency variation with depth is predicted well by the quarter wavelength formula for deep tubes but the formula becomes increasingly inaccurate as the tube depth is decreased. An improved analytical model was developed, in which the compliance and mass of the fluid in the integration slot is incorporated into the prediction of resonance frequencies of the system. Finally a feedback controller that varied both the resonance tube depth and spacing to converge on a desired frequency was developed and demonstrated. We are optimistic that numerous potential applications exist for such high bandwidth high dynamic range actuators.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Mechanical Engineering