Differences between respondents and nonrespondents in a multicenter community-based study vary by gender and ethnicity

Rodney Jackson, Lloyd E. Chambless, Kiduk Yang, Tom Byrne, Robert Watson, Aaron Folsom, Eyal Shahar, William Kalsbeek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

268 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study provides data on differences between respondents and nonrespondents by gender and ethnicity in a multicenter community-based study that is rarely collected and that may be useful for estimating bias in prevalence estimates in other studies. Demographic, general health, and cardiovascular risk factors were examined in black and white respondents and nonrespondents to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective study investigating cardiovascular risk factors in approximately 16,000 adults that was initiated in 1986 in four U.S. communities. In one of the communities (Jackson, MS) black participants were recruited exclusively; in another (Forsyth County, NC) 12% of the eligible sample were black, whereas the samples in Washington County, MD and the northwestern suburbs of Minneapolis, MN were almost all white. Demographic and health characteristics were collected during a home interview. Subjects who subsequently agreed to complete a clinical examination were defined as respondents, while eligible participants who only took part in the home interview were considered to be nonrespondents. Approxmately 75% of age-eligible individals (45-64 years) in each community completed the home interview. In three of the communities 86-88% of those who took part in the home interview also completed the clinic examination, whereas only 63% did so in Jackson. Among white participants, response rates were similar in men and women and between communities. Among black participants, the response rates were considerably lower, particularly in men. White male respondents reported a higher socioeconomic status, better general health and a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors than white male nonrespondents. The difference between white respondents and nonrespondents were greater for men than women despite similar response rates. Among black participants, respondent/nonrespondent differences were usually of smaller magnitude or absent, particularly in women. General health status and recent hospitalization rates were almost identical in black respondents and nonrespondents. Low response rates can bias estimates of prevalence in community-based studies although differences between respondents and nonrespondents tend to exaggerate real differences beween respondents and the eligible population sampled. For example, among white males 25% of respondents and 44% of nonrespondents were current smokers, yet the estimated community prevalence of smoking was 31%. In conclusion, differences observed between respondents and nonrespondents were in the expected direction, but were greater for men than women and for whites than blacks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1441-1446
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
Volume49
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1996
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Surveys and Questionnaires
Interviews
Health
Demography
Social Class
Health Status
Atherosclerosis
Hospitalization
Cardiovascular Diseases
Smoking
Prospective Studies
Population
hydroquinone

Keywords

  • Ethnicity
  • Health surveys
  • Prospective studies
  • Response rates
  • Selection bias
  • Survey methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Differences between respondents and nonrespondents in a multicenter community-based study vary by gender and ethnicity. / Jackson, Rodney; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Yang, Kiduk; Byrne, Tom; Watson, Robert; Folsom, Aaron; Shahar, Eyal; Kalsbeek, William.

In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 49, No. 12, 12.1996, p. 1441-1446.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jackson, Rodney ; Chambless, Lloyd E. ; Yang, Kiduk ; Byrne, Tom ; Watson, Robert ; Folsom, Aaron ; Shahar, Eyal ; Kalsbeek, William. / Differences between respondents and nonrespondents in a multicenter community-based study vary by gender and ethnicity. In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1996 ; Vol. 49, No. 12. pp. 1441-1446.
@article{cfea5f6b90da4294b1f7e83c42464e85,
title = "Differences between respondents and nonrespondents in a multicenter community-based study vary by gender and ethnicity",
abstract = "This study provides data on differences between respondents and nonrespondents by gender and ethnicity in a multicenter community-based study that is rarely collected and that may be useful for estimating bias in prevalence estimates in other studies. Demographic, general health, and cardiovascular risk factors were examined in black and white respondents and nonrespondents to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective study investigating cardiovascular risk factors in approximately 16,000 adults that was initiated in 1986 in four U.S. communities. In one of the communities (Jackson, MS) black participants were recruited exclusively; in another (Forsyth County, NC) 12{\%} of the eligible sample were black, whereas the samples in Washington County, MD and the northwestern suburbs of Minneapolis, MN were almost all white. Demographic and health characteristics were collected during a home interview. Subjects who subsequently agreed to complete a clinical examination were defined as respondents, while eligible participants who only took part in the home interview were considered to be nonrespondents. Approxmately 75{\%} of age-eligible individals (45-64 years) in each community completed the home interview. In three of the communities 86-88{\%} of those who took part in the home interview also completed the clinic examination, whereas only 63{\%} did so in Jackson. Among white participants, response rates were similar in men and women and between communities. Among black participants, the response rates were considerably lower, particularly in men. White male respondents reported a higher socioeconomic status, better general health and a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors than white male nonrespondents. The difference between white respondents and nonrespondents were greater for men than women despite similar response rates. Among black participants, respondent/nonrespondent differences were usually of smaller magnitude or absent, particularly in women. General health status and recent hospitalization rates were almost identical in black respondents and nonrespondents. Low response rates can bias estimates of prevalence in community-based studies although differences between respondents and nonrespondents tend to exaggerate real differences beween respondents and the eligible population sampled. For example, among white males 25{\%} of respondents and 44{\%} of nonrespondents were current smokers, yet the estimated community prevalence of smoking was 31{\%}. In conclusion, differences observed between respondents and nonrespondents were in the expected direction, but were greater for men than women and for whites than blacks.",
keywords = "Ethnicity, Health surveys, Prospective studies, Response rates, Selection bias, Survey methods",
author = "Rodney Jackson and Chambless, {Lloyd E.} and Kiduk Yang and Tom Byrne and Robert Watson and Aaron Folsom and Eyal Shahar and William Kalsbeek",
year = "1996",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1016/0895-4356(95)00047-X",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "49",
pages = "1441--1446",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Epidemiology",
issn = "0895-4356",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Differences between respondents and nonrespondents in a multicenter community-based study vary by gender and ethnicity

AU - Jackson, Rodney

AU - Chambless, Lloyd E.

AU - Yang, Kiduk

AU - Byrne, Tom

AU - Watson, Robert

AU - Folsom, Aaron

AU - Shahar, Eyal

AU - Kalsbeek, William

PY - 1996/12

Y1 - 1996/12

N2 - This study provides data on differences between respondents and nonrespondents by gender and ethnicity in a multicenter community-based study that is rarely collected and that may be useful for estimating bias in prevalence estimates in other studies. Demographic, general health, and cardiovascular risk factors were examined in black and white respondents and nonrespondents to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective study investigating cardiovascular risk factors in approximately 16,000 adults that was initiated in 1986 in four U.S. communities. In one of the communities (Jackson, MS) black participants were recruited exclusively; in another (Forsyth County, NC) 12% of the eligible sample were black, whereas the samples in Washington County, MD and the northwestern suburbs of Minneapolis, MN were almost all white. Demographic and health characteristics were collected during a home interview. Subjects who subsequently agreed to complete a clinical examination were defined as respondents, while eligible participants who only took part in the home interview were considered to be nonrespondents. Approxmately 75% of age-eligible individals (45-64 years) in each community completed the home interview. In three of the communities 86-88% of those who took part in the home interview also completed the clinic examination, whereas only 63% did so in Jackson. Among white participants, response rates were similar in men and women and between communities. Among black participants, the response rates were considerably lower, particularly in men. White male respondents reported a higher socioeconomic status, better general health and a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors than white male nonrespondents. The difference between white respondents and nonrespondents were greater for men than women despite similar response rates. Among black participants, respondent/nonrespondent differences were usually of smaller magnitude or absent, particularly in women. General health status and recent hospitalization rates were almost identical in black respondents and nonrespondents. Low response rates can bias estimates of prevalence in community-based studies although differences between respondents and nonrespondents tend to exaggerate real differences beween respondents and the eligible population sampled. For example, among white males 25% of respondents and 44% of nonrespondents were current smokers, yet the estimated community prevalence of smoking was 31%. In conclusion, differences observed between respondents and nonrespondents were in the expected direction, but were greater for men than women and for whites than blacks.

AB - This study provides data on differences between respondents and nonrespondents by gender and ethnicity in a multicenter community-based study that is rarely collected and that may be useful for estimating bias in prevalence estimates in other studies. Demographic, general health, and cardiovascular risk factors were examined in black and white respondents and nonrespondents to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective study investigating cardiovascular risk factors in approximately 16,000 adults that was initiated in 1986 in four U.S. communities. In one of the communities (Jackson, MS) black participants were recruited exclusively; in another (Forsyth County, NC) 12% of the eligible sample were black, whereas the samples in Washington County, MD and the northwestern suburbs of Minneapolis, MN were almost all white. Demographic and health characteristics were collected during a home interview. Subjects who subsequently agreed to complete a clinical examination were defined as respondents, while eligible participants who only took part in the home interview were considered to be nonrespondents. Approxmately 75% of age-eligible individals (45-64 years) in each community completed the home interview. In three of the communities 86-88% of those who took part in the home interview also completed the clinic examination, whereas only 63% did so in Jackson. Among white participants, response rates were similar in men and women and between communities. Among black participants, the response rates were considerably lower, particularly in men. White male respondents reported a higher socioeconomic status, better general health and a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors than white male nonrespondents. The difference between white respondents and nonrespondents were greater for men than women despite similar response rates. Among black participants, respondent/nonrespondent differences were usually of smaller magnitude or absent, particularly in women. General health status and recent hospitalization rates were almost identical in black respondents and nonrespondents. Low response rates can bias estimates of prevalence in community-based studies although differences between respondents and nonrespondents tend to exaggerate real differences beween respondents and the eligible population sampled. For example, among white males 25% of respondents and 44% of nonrespondents were current smokers, yet the estimated community prevalence of smoking was 31%. In conclusion, differences observed between respondents and nonrespondents were in the expected direction, but were greater for men than women and for whites than blacks.

KW - Ethnicity

KW - Health surveys

KW - Prospective studies

KW - Response rates

KW - Selection bias

KW - Survey methods

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030465255&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030465255&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/0895-4356(95)00047-X

DO - 10.1016/0895-4356(95)00047-X

M3 - Article

C2 - 8970495

AN - SCOPUS:0030465255

VL - 49

SP - 1441

EP - 1446

JO - Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

JF - Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

SN - 0895-4356

IS - 12

ER -