BACKGROUND. MT1-MMP is a metalloproteinase involved in prostate cancer metastasis. The IGF-1R is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved with tumor progression and metastasis. The purpose of this investigation was to examine MT1-MMP and IGF-1R expression and localization in prostate cancer tissues and explore the role of IGF-1R in regulating MT1-MMP in prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to study MT1-MMP and IGF-1R expression in human prostate tissues. IGF-1R regulation of MT1-MMP expression was determined by gene promoter analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis following pharmacological inhibition of the receptor in PC-3N cells and treatment of LNCaP cells with androgen and IGF-1. RESULTS. MT1-MMP expression was high in the apical regions of the luminal cells in PIN and prostate cancer and less intense in the basalateral regions of benign tissues. IGF-1R was expressed primarily in the basal cells of normal glands and highly expressed in prostate cancer. Inhibition of IGF-1R in PC-3N cells decreased MT1-MMP expression and treatment of LNCaP cells with a synthetic androgen and IGF-1 increased MT1-MMP expression. CONCLUSIONS. These data demonstrate that MT1-MMP is highly expressed in the apical cytoplasmic regions of the luminal cells in PIN and prostate cancer when compared to basalateral cytoplasmic membrane staining in benign glands. Additionally, we demonstrate that IGF-1R is highly expressed in human prostate carcinoma. These findings suggest that MT1-MMP localization and IGF-1R expression in prostate carcinoma could be predictive biomarkers for aggressive disease and support IGF-1R as a promising therapeutic target to decrease processes of prostate cancer metastasis.
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