Direct potable reuse: NDMA control strategies

R. Aflaki, J. Munoz, M. Ruiz, R. Nabegh, W. Mitch, S. Hammond, J. Barnard, S. Sathyamoorthy, M. Agbodo, Shane A Snyder

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Many nitrosamines are considered toxic carcinogens and key contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) for potable reuse (PR). Several have been included in the US EPA's past few Contaminant Candidate Lists for consideration for federal regulatory action and California maintains 10 ng/L notification levels for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA). NDMA in particular has been a key focus for potable reuse facilities. It occurs in sewage from industrial and domestic sources. Municipal sewage also features chloramine- and ozone-reactive precursors for NDMA, and both disinfectants have been applied in potable reuse treatment trains. This paper presents evaluation of various NDMA control strategies for an advanced treatment for potable reuse. Development of these control strategies include characterizing nitrosamine precursor sources (including industrial sources), optimizing the removal of nitrosamines and their precursors through secondary nitrification/denitrification (NdeN) treatment, and across Full Advanced Treatment (FAT) consisting of Microfiltration (MF), Reverse Osmosis (RO), Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) and an alternative treatment trains for potable reuse consisting of above grade treatment consisting of ozone, biological activated carbon (O3/BAC)), AOP, followed by the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). These evaluations include the fate and transport of nitrosamines, NDMA and its precursors and a potential to form during treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication91st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2018
PublisherWater Environment Federation
Pages2206-2221
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781510877474
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event91st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2018 - New Orleans, United States
Duration: Sep 29 2018Oct 3 2018

Publication series

Name91st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2018

Conference

Conference91st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2018
CountryUnited States
CityNew Orleans
Period9/29/1810/3/18

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Keywords

  • Disinfection
  • Fate
  • Potable Reuse
  • Transport of Nitrosamines during advanced treatment
  • Water Reuse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecological Modeling
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this

Aflaki, R., Munoz, J., Ruiz, M., Nabegh, R., Mitch, W., Hammond, S., ... Snyder, S. A. (2019). Direct potable reuse: NDMA control strategies. In 91st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2018 (pp. 2206-2221). (91st Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2018). Water Environment Federation.