Disinfection resistance of waterborne pathogens on the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL)

Charles P. Gerba, Nena Nwachuku, Kelley R. Riley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

In 1999, the United States Environmental Protection Agency developed a list of emerging waterborne microbial pathogens that may pose a risk in drinking water. This review deals with the disinfection resistance of microorganisms on the Contaminate Candidate List or CCL. Current disinfection practices in the United States appear to be capable of dealing with most of the microorganisms on the CCL, with the exception of Mycobacterium avium and adenoviruses. Mycobacterium avium is more resistant to most disinfectants than other waterborne bacteria and adenoviruses are the most resistant waterborne microorganisms to inactivation by ultraviolet disinfection. The microsporidium, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, shows significant resistance to inactivation by chemical disinfectants and further research on additional species of microsporidia appears to be warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-94
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA
Volume52
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2003

Keywords

  • Adenovirus
  • Calicivirus
  • Contaminant Candidate List
  • Disinfection
  • Drinking water
  • Encephalitozoon intestinalis
  • Mycobacterium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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