Disk masses at the end of the main accretion phase: Carma observations and multi-wavelength modeling of class i protostars

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Abstract

We present imaging observations at the 1.3mm wavelength of ClassI protostars in the Taurus star-forming region, obtained with the CARMA interferometer. Of an initial sample of 10 objects, we detected and imaged millimeter wavelength emission from 9. One of the nine is resolved into two sources and detailed analysis of this binary protostellar system is deferred to a future paper. For the remaining eight objects, we use the CARMA data to determine the basic morphology of the millimeter emission. Combining the millimeter data with 0.9 μm images of scattered light, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and broadband spectral energy distributions (all from the literature), we attempt to determine the structure of the circumstellar material. We consider models including both circumstellar disks and envelopes, and constrain the masses (and other structural parameters) of each of these components. We show that the disk masses in our sample span a range from ≲ 0.01 to ≳ 0.1 M. The disk masses for our sample are significantly higher than for samples of more evolved ClassII objects. Thus, ClassI disk masses probably provide a more accurate estimate of the initial mass budget for star and planet formation. However, the disk masses determined here are lower than required by theories of giant planet formation. The masses also appear too low for gravitational instability, which could lead to high mass accretion rates. Even in these ClassI disks, substantial particle growth may have hidden much of the disk mass in hard-to-see larger bodies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number23
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume755
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2012

Fingerprint

protostars
accretion
wavelength
wavelengths
modeling
planets
planet
gravitational instability
spectral energy distribution
interferometer
budgets
spectrographs
star formation
envelopes
interferometers
broadband
stars
estimates

Keywords

  • Circumstellar matter
  • stars: formation
  • techniques: high angular resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

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title = "Disk masses at the end of the main accretion phase: Carma observations and multi-wavelength modeling of class i protostars",
abstract = "We present imaging observations at the 1.3mm wavelength of ClassI protostars in the Taurus star-forming region, obtained with the CARMA interferometer. Of an initial sample of 10 objects, we detected and imaged millimeter wavelength emission from 9. One of the nine is resolved into two sources and detailed analysis of this binary protostellar system is deferred to a future paper. For the remaining eight objects, we use the CARMA data to determine the basic morphology of the millimeter emission. Combining the millimeter data with 0.9 μm images of scattered light, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and broadband spectral energy distributions (all from the literature), we attempt to determine the structure of the circumstellar material. We consider models including both circumstellar disks and envelopes, and constrain the masses (and other structural parameters) of each of these components. We show that the disk masses in our sample span a range from ≲ 0.01 to ≳ 0.1 M. The disk masses for our sample are significantly higher than for samples of more evolved ClassII objects. Thus, ClassI disk masses probably provide a more accurate estimate of the initial mass budget for star and planet formation. However, the disk masses determined here are lower than required by theories of giant planet formation. The masses also appear too low for gravitational instability, which could lead to high mass accretion rates. Even in these ClassI disks, substantial particle growth may have hidden much of the disk mass in hard-to-see larger bodies.",
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N2 - We present imaging observations at the 1.3mm wavelength of ClassI protostars in the Taurus star-forming region, obtained with the CARMA interferometer. Of an initial sample of 10 objects, we detected and imaged millimeter wavelength emission from 9. One of the nine is resolved into two sources and detailed analysis of this binary protostellar system is deferred to a future paper. For the remaining eight objects, we use the CARMA data to determine the basic morphology of the millimeter emission. Combining the millimeter data with 0.9 μm images of scattered light, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and broadband spectral energy distributions (all from the literature), we attempt to determine the structure of the circumstellar material. We consider models including both circumstellar disks and envelopes, and constrain the masses (and other structural parameters) of each of these components. We show that the disk masses in our sample span a range from ≲ 0.01 to ≳ 0.1 M. The disk masses for our sample are significantly higher than for samples of more evolved ClassII objects. Thus, ClassI disk masses probably provide a more accurate estimate of the initial mass budget for star and planet formation. However, the disk masses determined here are lower than required by theories of giant planet formation. The masses also appear too low for gravitational instability, which could lead to high mass accretion rates. Even in these ClassI disks, substantial particle growth may have hidden much of the disk mass in hard-to-see larger bodies.

AB - We present imaging observations at the 1.3mm wavelength of ClassI protostars in the Taurus star-forming region, obtained with the CARMA interferometer. Of an initial sample of 10 objects, we detected and imaged millimeter wavelength emission from 9. One of the nine is resolved into two sources and detailed analysis of this binary protostellar system is deferred to a future paper. For the remaining eight objects, we use the CARMA data to determine the basic morphology of the millimeter emission. Combining the millimeter data with 0.9 μm images of scattered light, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and broadband spectral energy distributions (all from the literature), we attempt to determine the structure of the circumstellar material. We consider models including both circumstellar disks and envelopes, and constrain the masses (and other structural parameters) of each of these components. We show that the disk masses in our sample span a range from ≲ 0.01 to ≳ 0.1 M. The disk masses for our sample are significantly higher than for samples of more evolved ClassII objects. Thus, ClassI disk masses probably provide a more accurate estimate of the initial mass budget for star and planet formation. However, the disk masses determined here are lower than required by theories of giant planet formation. The masses also appear too low for gravitational instability, which could lead to high mass accretion rates. Even in these ClassI disks, substantial particle growth may have hidden much of the disk mass in hard-to-see larger bodies.

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