Distribution of acetylcholine, choline, choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in regions and single identified axons of the lobster nervous system

John G Hildebrand, J. G. Townsel, E. A. Kravitz

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Abstract

Acetylcholine, its precursor (choline), and the enzymes of its biosynthesis and degradation (choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, respectively) have been studied and quantified in extracts of several regions of the nervous system of the lobster and in single, isolated axons of identified efferent excitatory, efferent inhibitory and afferent sensory neurons. The choline acetyltransferase is a soluble enzyme similar to that from other species. The predominant acetylcholine hydrolysing enzyme is largely membrane bound and has been characterized as a specific acetylcholinesterase. A single peak of acetylcholinesterase activity can be detected upon velocity sedimentation analysis of Triton X 100 treated extracts of all regions of the nervous system. Choline acetyltransferase distribution parallels that of sensory neural elements, and its specific activity shows nearly a 500 fold difference from the richest to the poorest neural source. Acetylcholinesterase levels span only a 23 fold range, and activity is found in all neural regions, including those free of known sensory components. A radiochemical microassay for choline and acetylcholine in the range of 20-2000 pmol is described in detail. All 3 types of axons contain comparable levels of choline (ca. 2 pmol/μg protein), but acetylcholine is asymmetrically distributed. Efferent axons contain no detectable acetylcholine, while sensory axons from abdominal muscle receptor organs have an average of 1.9 pmol/μg protein. Choline acetyltransferase is similarly distributed; sensory axons show at least 500 fold greater activity than efferent axons. Acetylcholinesterase is nearly uniformly distributed among the three types of fibres. These results are discussed in terms of a general view of transmitter accumulation in single neurons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)951-963
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neurochemistry
Volume23
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1974
Externally publishedYes

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Choline O-Acetyltransferase
Neurology
Acetylcholinesterase
Choline
Nervous System
Acetylcholine
Axons
Neurons
Enzymes
Abdominal Muscles
Afferent Neurons
Enzyme Precursors
Biosynthesis
Octoxynol
Sensory Receptor Cells
Sedimentation
Muscle
Transmitters
Proteins
Membranes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

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title = "Distribution of acetylcholine, choline, choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in regions and single identified axons of the lobster nervous system",
abstract = "Acetylcholine, its precursor (choline), and the enzymes of its biosynthesis and degradation (choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, respectively) have been studied and quantified in extracts of several regions of the nervous system of the lobster and in single, isolated axons of identified efferent excitatory, efferent inhibitory and afferent sensory neurons. The choline acetyltransferase is a soluble enzyme similar to that from other species. The predominant acetylcholine hydrolysing enzyme is largely membrane bound and has been characterized as a specific acetylcholinesterase. A single peak of acetylcholinesterase activity can be detected upon velocity sedimentation analysis of Triton X 100 treated extracts of all regions of the nervous system. Choline acetyltransferase distribution parallels that of sensory neural elements, and its specific activity shows nearly a 500 fold difference from the richest to the poorest neural source. Acetylcholinesterase levels span only a 23 fold range, and activity is found in all neural regions, including those free of known sensory components. A radiochemical microassay for choline and acetylcholine in the range of 20-2000 pmol is described in detail. All 3 types of axons contain comparable levels of choline (ca. 2 pmol/μg protein), but acetylcholine is asymmetrically distributed. Efferent axons contain no detectable acetylcholine, while sensory axons from abdominal muscle receptor organs have an average of 1.9 pmol/μg protein. Choline acetyltransferase is similarly distributed; sensory axons show at least 500 fold greater activity than efferent axons. Acetylcholinesterase is nearly uniformly distributed among the three types of fibres. These results are discussed in terms of a general view of transmitter accumulation in single neurons.",
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T1 - Distribution of acetylcholine, choline, choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in regions and single identified axons of the lobster nervous system

AU - Hildebrand, John G

AU - Townsel, J. G.

AU - Kravitz, E. A.

PY - 1974

Y1 - 1974

N2 - Acetylcholine, its precursor (choline), and the enzymes of its biosynthesis and degradation (choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, respectively) have been studied and quantified in extracts of several regions of the nervous system of the lobster and in single, isolated axons of identified efferent excitatory, efferent inhibitory and afferent sensory neurons. The choline acetyltransferase is a soluble enzyme similar to that from other species. The predominant acetylcholine hydrolysing enzyme is largely membrane bound and has been characterized as a specific acetylcholinesterase. A single peak of acetylcholinesterase activity can be detected upon velocity sedimentation analysis of Triton X 100 treated extracts of all regions of the nervous system. Choline acetyltransferase distribution parallels that of sensory neural elements, and its specific activity shows nearly a 500 fold difference from the richest to the poorest neural source. Acetylcholinesterase levels span only a 23 fold range, and activity is found in all neural regions, including those free of known sensory components. A radiochemical microassay for choline and acetylcholine in the range of 20-2000 pmol is described in detail. All 3 types of axons contain comparable levels of choline (ca. 2 pmol/μg protein), but acetylcholine is asymmetrically distributed. Efferent axons contain no detectable acetylcholine, while sensory axons from abdominal muscle receptor organs have an average of 1.9 pmol/μg protein. Choline acetyltransferase is similarly distributed; sensory axons show at least 500 fold greater activity than efferent axons. Acetylcholinesterase is nearly uniformly distributed among the three types of fibres. These results are discussed in terms of a general view of transmitter accumulation in single neurons.

AB - Acetylcholine, its precursor (choline), and the enzymes of its biosynthesis and degradation (choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, respectively) have been studied and quantified in extracts of several regions of the nervous system of the lobster and in single, isolated axons of identified efferent excitatory, efferent inhibitory and afferent sensory neurons. The choline acetyltransferase is a soluble enzyme similar to that from other species. The predominant acetylcholine hydrolysing enzyme is largely membrane bound and has been characterized as a specific acetylcholinesterase. A single peak of acetylcholinesterase activity can be detected upon velocity sedimentation analysis of Triton X 100 treated extracts of all regions of the nervous system. Choline acetyltransferase distribution parallels that of sensory neural elements, and its specific activity shows nearly a 500 fold difference from the richest to the poorest neural source. Acetylcholinesterase levels span only a 23 fold range, and activity is found in all neural regions, including those free of known sensory components. A radiochemical microassay for choline and acetylcholine in the range of 20-2000 pmol is described in detail. All 3 types of axons contain comparable levels of choline (ca. 2 pmol/μg protein), but acetylcholine is asymmetrically distributed. Efferent axons contain no detectable acetylcholine, while sensory axons from abdominal muscle receptor organs have an average of 1.9 pmol/μg protein. Choline acetyltransferase is similarly distributed; sensory axons show at least 500 fold greater activity than efferent axons. Acetylcholinesterase is nearly uniformly distributed among the three types of fibres. These results are discussed in terms of a general view of transmitter accumulation in single neurons.

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