Using an antiserum against the tetrapeptide FMRFamide, we have studied the distribution of FMRFamide-like substances in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. More than 2000 neurons per hemisphere exhibit FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. Most of these cells reside within the optic lobe. Particular types of FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons can be identified. Among these are neurosecretory cells, putatively centrifugal neurons of the optic lobe, local interneurons of the antennal lobe, mushroom-body Kenyon cells, and small-field neurons of the central complex. In the suboesophageal ganglion, groups of ventral midline neurons exhibit FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. Some of these cells have axons in the maxillary nerves and apparently give rise to FMRFamide-immunoreactive terminals in the sheath of the suboesophageal ganglion and the maxillary nerves. In local interneurons of the antennal lobe and a particular group of protocerebral neurons, FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity is colocalized with GABA-like immunoreactivity. This suggests that FMRFamide-like peptides may be cotransmitters of these putatively GABAergic interneurons. All FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons are, furthermore, immunoreactive with an antiserum against bovine pancreatic polypeptide, and the vast majority is also immunoreactive with an antibody against the molluscan small cardioactive peptide SCPB. Therefore, it is possible that more than one peptide is localized within many FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons. The results suggest that FMRFamide-related peptides are widespread within the nervous system of M. sexta and might function as neurohormones and neurotransmitters in a variety of neuronal cell types.
- Insect nervous system
- Manduca sexta (Insecta)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology