Distribution of lymphoid depletion and viral antigen in alpacas experimentally infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1

David J. Steffen, Christina L. Topliff, John A Schmitz, John R. Kammerman, Jamie N. Henningson, Kent M. Eskridge, Clayton L. Kelling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It was hypothesized that acute postnatal Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) infection leads to leukopenia and lymphoid depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissues similar to acute disease in calves. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the pathologic effects, viremia, viral shedding, and viral antigen deposition in 6-24-month-old, acutely infected alpacas following experimental infection with noncytopathic BVDV-1 subgenotype 1b (BVDV C0-6). The BVDV-1 isolate was obtained from a cria with naturally occurring persistent infection. Lymphocytopenia occurred 3-7 days postinfection, with a 50% reduction in peripheral lymphocytes in infected alpacas. Depletion of B-cell populations in gut-associated lymphoid tissues was evident microscopically. Populations of T cells in parafollicular zones and in nodular aggregates along the superficial submucosa remained intact. The BVDV antigen was deposited most consistently in submucosal gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues of ileum, proximal colon, and stomach compartment three. Viral antigen was more variably evident in other lymphoid tissues. Antigen distribution correlated well with histologic lesions in gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues, confirming the role of virus in lymphoid depletion. Nasal shedding was detected in all challenged alpacas on day 6 and in 4 out of 12 challenged alpacas on day 9. Viremia was present as early as day 3, and present in all challenged alpacas on days 5, 6, 7, and 9 postchallenge. Lymphocytopenia and depletion of gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues associated with acute BVDV-1 infection likely results in immune compromise and is expected to exacerbate concurrent infections even though uncomplicated BVDV-1 infection was clinically unapparent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-41
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
Volume26
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2014

Fingerprint

Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1
New World Camelids
Viral Antigens
alpacas
viral antigens
Lymphoid Tissue
Virus Diseases
Lymphopenia
infection
Viremia
viremia
digestive system
Infection
antigens
Virus Shedding
Antigens
acute course
leukopenia
viral shedding
Leukopenia

Keywords

  • Alpacas
  • antigen
  • Bovine virus diarrhea virus 1
  • lesions
  • pathogenesis
  • pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Distribution of lymphoid depletion and viral antigen in alpacas experimentally infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1. / Steffen, David J.; Topliff, Christina L.; Schmitz, John A; Kammerman, John R.; Henningson, Jamie N.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Kelling, Clayton L.

In: Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc, Vol. 26, No. 1, 01.2014, p. 35-41.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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