In this review, we describe the evidence for a parallel-stranded G-quadruplex in the purine-rich strand of the nuclease hypersensitivity element III1 (NHE III1) of the promoter of c-MYC upstream of the P1 and P2 promoters. This biologically relevant G-quadruplex is a mixture of four loop isomers. The folding pattern of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived structure for the predominant loop isomer of this G-quadruplex has been obtained. This G-quadruplex has been demonstrated to be a silencer element, and the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 has been shown to stabilize this G-quadruplex. Furthermore, TMPyP4 has been shown to repress c-MYC expression, and this effect is mediated through the silencer element. Last, the in vivo activity of TMPyP4 in xenograph models is presented.
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