Here we describe a novel caged form of the highly reactive bioeffector molecule, nitroxyl (HNO). Reacting the labile nitric oxide (NO)- and HNO-generating salt of structure iPrHN-N(O)=NO-Na+ (1, IPA/NO) with BrCH2OAc produced a stable derivative of structure iPrHN-N(O)=NO-CH2OAc (2, AcOM-IPA/NO), which hydrolyzed an order of magnitude more slowly than 1 at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. Hydrolysis of 2 to generate HNO proceeded by at least two mechanisms. In the presence of esterase, straightforward dissociation to acetate, formaldehyde, and 1 was the dominant path. In the absence of enzyme, free 1 was not observed as an intermediate and the ratio of NO to HNO among the products approached zero. To account for this surprising result, we propose a mechanism in which base-induced removal of the N-H proton of 2 leads to acetyl group migration from oxygen to the neighboring nitrogen, followed by cleavage of the resulting rearrangement product to isopropanediazoate ion and the known HNO precursor, CH3-C(O)-NO. The trappable yield of HNO from 2 was significantly enhanced over 1 at physiological pH, in part because the slower rate of hydrolysis for 2 generated a correspondingly lower steady-state concentration of HNO, thus, minimizing self-consumption and enhancing trapping by biological targets such as metmyoglobin and glutathione. Consistent with the chemical trapping efficiency data, micromolar concentrations of prodrug 2 displayed significantly more potent sarcomere shortening effects relative to 1 on ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mouse hearts, suggesting that 2 may be a promising lead compound for the development of heart failure therapies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry