Fingerprinting embeds a secret message into a cover message. In media fingerprinting, the secret is usually a copyright notice and the cover a digital image. Fingerprinting an object discourages intellectual property theft, or when such theft has occurred, allows us to prove ownership. The Software Fingerprinting problem can be described as follows. Embed a structure W into a program P such that: W can be reliably located and extracted from P even after P has been subjected to code transformations such as translation, optimization and obfuscation; W is stealthy; W has a high data rate; embedding W into P does not adversely affect the performance of P; and W has a mathematical property that allows us to argue that its presence in P is the result of deliberate actions. In this article, we describe a software fingerprinting technique in which a dynamic graph fingerprint is stored in the execution state of a program. Because of the hardness of pointer alias analysis such fingerprints are difficult to attack automatically.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2007|
- Software piracy
- Software protection
ASJC Scopus subject areas