OBJECTIVES: Adenosine receptor activation at reperfusion has been shown to ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord, but the effects of therapy given in response to ischemic injury are unknown. We hypothesized that adenosine receptor activation with ATL-146e would produce similar protection from ischemic spinal cord injury, whether given at reperfusion or in a delayed fashion. METHODS: Twenty-two New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. All three groups, including the ischemia-reperfusion group (IR, n = 8), underwent 45 min of infrarenal aortic occlusion. The early treatment group (early, n = 8) received 0.06 μg/kg/min of ATL-146e for 3 h beginning 10 min prior to reperfusion. The delayed treatment group (delayed, n = 6) received ATL-146e starting 1 h after reperfusion. After 48 h, hind limb function was graded using the Tarlov score. Finally, lumbar spinal cord neuronal cytoarchitecture was evaluated. RESULTS: Hemodynamic parameters were similar among the groups. Hind limb function at 48 h was significantly better in the early group (3.5 ± 1.0) compared to the IR group (0.625 ± 0.5, P ≤ 0.01). There was a trend towards better hind limb function in the early group compared to the delayed group (2.4 ± 1.1, P = 0.08). Hind limb function was similar between delayed and IR groups. Hematoxylin-eosin spinal cord sections demonstrated preservation of viable motor neurons in the early group compared to the delayed and IR groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early therapy with ATL-146e provided better protection in this study; therefore, therapy should not be delayed until there is evidence of ischemic neurological deficit. This study suggests that adenosine receptor activation is most effective as a preventive strategy at reperfusion for optimal protection in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury.
- Spinal cord ischemia
- Vascular surgery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine