Early time chromatic variations in the wind-swept medium of GRB 021211 and the faintness of its afterglow

M. C. Nysewander, D. E. Reichart, H. S. Park, George G Williams, K. Kinugasa, D. Q. Lamb, A. A. Henden, S. Klose, T. Kato, A. Harper, H. Yamaoka, C. Laws, K. Torii, D. G. York, J. C. Barentine, J. Dembicky, R. J. Mcmillan, J. A. Moran, D. H. Hartmann, B. KetzebackM. B. Bayliss, J. W. Bartelme, J. A. Crain, A. C. Foster, M. Schwartz, P. Holvorcem, P. A. Price, R. Canterna, G. B. Crew, G. R. Ricker, S. D. Barthelmy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present Follow-Up Network for Gamma-Ray Bursts (FUN GRB) Collaboration observations of the optical afterglow of GRB 021211 made between 143 s and 102 days after the burst. Our unique data set includes the earliest filtered detections and color information for an afterglow in the pre-Swift era. We find that the afterglow is best described by (1) a propagation through a wind-swept medium, (2) a cooling break that is blueward of the observed optical frequencies, and (3) a hard electron energy distribution. However, superimposed on this "standard model" behavior we find, one and possibly two, significant chromatic variations during the first few hours after the burst. We consider possible reasons for these variations, including the possibility that they are due to a dust echo. Finally, we constrain physical parameters that describe the afterglow and the surrounding medium for a variety of scenarios and find that GRB 021211's afterglow is faint for a combination of reasons: (1) a low fraction of energy in relativistic electrons, (2) a low density for the wind-swept medium, implying either a low mass-loss rate and/or a high wind velocity for the progenitor, (3) a wide opening/viewing angle for the jet, and possibly (4) moderate source-frame extinction. The jet appears to be significantly far from equipartition and magnetically dominated. More extreme versions of this might explain the darkness of many afterglows in the Swift era.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)994-1004
Number of pages11
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume651
Issue number2 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 10 2006

Fingerprint

afterglows
electron
energy
wind velocity
extinction
dust
cooling
bursts
darkness
gamma ray bursts
echoes
energy distribution
electron energy
color
propagation
parameter
loss
rate
detection
distribution

Keywords

  • Dust, extinction
  • Gamma rays: bursts
  • Magnetic fields
  • Scattering
  • Stars: winds, outflows
  • Stars: Wolf-Rayet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Nysewander, M. C., Reichart, D. E., Park, H. S., Williams, G. G., Kinugasa, K., Lamb, D. Q., ... Barthelmy, S. D. (2006). Early time chromatic variations in the wind-swept medium of GRB 021211 and the faintness of its afterglow. Astrophysical Journal, 651(2 I), 994-1004. https://doi.org/10.1086/506980

Early time chromatic variations in the wind-swept medium of GRB 021211 and the faintness of its afterglow. / Nysewander, M. C.; Reichart, D. E.; Park, H. S.; Williams, George G; Kinugasa, K.; Lamb, D. Q.; Henden, A. A.; Klose, S.; Kato, T.; Harper, A.; Yamaoka, H.; Laws, C.; Torii, K.; York, D. G.; Barentine, J. C.; Dembicky, J.; Mcmillan, R. J.; Moran, J. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Ketzeback, B.; Bayliss, M. B.; Bartelme, J. W.; Crain, J. A.; Foster, A. C.; Schwartz, M.; Holvorcem, P.; Price, P. A.; Canterna, R.; Crew, G. B.; Ricker, G. R.; Barthelmy, S. D.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 651, No. 2 I, 10.11.2006, p. 994-1004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nysewander, MC, Reichart, DE, Park, HS, Williams, GG, Kinugasa, K, Lamb, DQ, Henden, AA, Klose, S, Kato, T, Harper, A, Yamaoka, H, Laws, C, Torii, K, York, DG, Barentine, JC, Dembicky, J, Mcmillan, RJ, Moran, JA, Hartmann, DH, Ketzeback, B, Bayliss, MB, Bartelme, JW, Crain, JA, Foster, AC, Schwartz, M, Holvorcem, P, Price, PA, Canterna, R, Crew, GB, Ricker, GR & Barthelmy, SD 2006, 'Early time chromatic variations in the wind-swept medium of GRB 021211 and the faintness of its afterglow', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 651, no. 2 I, pp. 994-1004. https://doi.org/10.1086/506980
Nysewander, M. C. ; Reichart, D. E. ; Park, H. S. ; Williams, George G ; Kinugasa, K. ; Lamb, D. Q. ; Henden, A. A. ; Klose, S. ; Kato, T. ; Harper, A. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Laws, C. ; Torii, K. ; York, D. G. ; Barentine, J. C. ; Dembicky, J. ; Mcmillan, R. J. ; Moran, J. A. ; Hartmann, D. H. ; Ketzeback, B. ; Bayliss, M. B. ; Bartelme, J. W. ; Crain, J. A. ; Foster, A. C. ; Schwartz, M. ; Holvorcem, P. ; Price, P. A. ; Canterna, R. ; Crew, G. B. ; Ricker, G. R. ; Barthelmy, S. D. / Early time chromatic variations in the wind-swept medium of GRB 021211 and the faintness of its afterglow. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 651, No. 2 I. pp. 994-1004.
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AU - Nysewander, M. C.

AU - Reichart, D. E.

AU - Park, H. S.

AU - Williams, George G

AU - Kinugasa, K.

AU - Lamb, D. Q.

AU - Henden, A. A.

AU - Klose, S.

AU - Kato, T.

AU - Harper, A.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Laws, C.

AU - Torii, K.

AU - York, D. G.

AU - Barentine, J. C.

AU - Dembicky, J.

AU - Mcmillan, R. J.

AU - Moran, J. A.

AU - Hartmann, D. H.

AU - Ketzeback, B.

AU - Bayliss, M. B.

AU - Bartelme, J. W.

AU - Crain, J. A.

AU - Foster, A. C.

AU - Schwartz, M.

AU - Holvorcem, P.

AU - Price, P. A.

AU - Canterna, R.

AU - Crew, G. B.

AU - Ricker, G. R.

AU - Barthelmy, S. D.

PY - 2006/11/10

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AB - We present Follow-Up Network for Gamma-Ray Bursts (FUN GRB) Collaboration observations of the optical afterglow of GRB 021211 made between 143 s and 102 days after the burst. Our unique data set includes the earliest filtered detections and color information for an afterglow in the pre-Swift era. We find that the afterglow is best described by (1) a propagation through a wind-swept medium, (2) a cooling break that is blueward of the observed optical frequencies, and (3) a hard electron energy distribution. However, superimposed on this "standard model" behavior we find, one and possibly two, significant chromatic variations during the first few hours after the burst. We consider possible reasons for these variations, including the possibility that they are due to a dust echo. Finally, we constrain physical parameters that describe the afterglow and the surrounding medium for a variety of scenarios and find that GRB 021211's afterglow is faint for a combination of reasons: (1) a low fraction of energy in relativistic electrons, (2) a low density for the wind-swept medium, implying either a low mass-loss rate and/or a high wind velocity for the progenitor, (3) a wide opening/viewing angle for the jet, and possibly (4) moderate source-frame extinction. The jet appears to be significantly far from equipartition and magnetically dominated. More extreme versions of this might explain the darkness of many afterglows in the Swift era.

KW - Dust, extinction

KW - Gamma rays: bursts

KW - Magnetic fields

KW - Scattering

KW - Stars: winds, outflows

KW - Stars: Wolf-Rayet

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