Effect of anaerobic digestion on the occurrence of enteroviruses and Giardia cysts in sewage sludge

A. C. Soares, T. M. Straub, Ian L Pepper, Charles P Gerba

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29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The disposal of anaerobically digested sewage sludge onto farmland has created the necessity to evaluate the fate of pathogens which are often present. The occurrence of enteroviruses and Giardia cysts in mesophilic anaerobically digested sludge before and after treatment, was monitored for a period of 14 months. The concentration of enteroviruses in sludge determined by Most Probable Number (MPN) ranged from 4.36 x 103 to 7.00 x 105 MPN/Kg before anaerobic digestion and from < 6.25 to 2.52 x 105 MPN/Kg after treatment. The concentration of Giardia cysts as determined by immunofluorescence ranged from 7.33 x 104 to 3.30 x 106 cysts/Kg of undigested sludge and 1.00 x 105 to 4.14 x 106 cysts/Kg of anaerobically digested sludge. The percentage virus removal after anaerobic digestion varied from 68% to > 99.94%. The levels of intact Giardia cysts did not show any significant removal after sludge treatment. However, cyst viability could not be assessed by the method used for detection. Results of this study suggest that significant concentrations of both groups of pathogens can be present in anaerobically digested sludge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1887-1897
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Environmental Science and Engineering
Volume29
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1994

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Anaerobic digestion
Sewage sludge
Pathogens
Waste disposal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution

Cite this

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title = "Effect of anaerobic digestion on the occurrence of enteroviruses and Giardia cysts in sewage sludge",
abstract = "The disposal of anaerobically digested sewage sludge onto farmland has created the necessity to evaluate the fate of pathogens which are often present. The occurrence of enteroviruses and Giardia cysts in mesophilic anaerobically digested sludge before and after treatment, was monitored for a period of 14 months. The concentration of enteroviruses in sludge determined by Most Probable Number (MPN) ranged from 4.36 x 103 to 7.00 x 105 MPN/Kg before anaerobic digestion and from < 6.25 to 2.52 x 105 MPN/Kg after treatment. The concentration of Giardia cysts as determined by immunofluorescence ranged from 7.33 x 104 to 3.30 x 106 cysts/Kg of undigested sludge and 1.00 x 105 to 4.14 x 106 cysts/Kg of anaerobically digested sludge. The percentage virus removal after anaerobic digestion varied from 68{\%} to > 99.94{\%}. The levels of intact Giardia cysts did not show any significant removal after sludge treatment. However, cyst viability could not be assessed by the method used for detection. Results of this study suggest that significant concentrations of both groups of pathogens can be present in anaerobically digested sludge.",
author = "Soares, {A. C.} and Straub, {T. M.} and Pepper, {Ian L} and Gerba, {Charles P}",
year = "1994",
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T1 - Effect of anaerobic digestion on the occurrence of enteroviruses and Giardia cysts in sewage sludge

AU - Soares, A. C.

AU - Straub, T. M.

AU - Pepper, Ian L

AU - Gerba, Charles P

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - The disposal of anaerobically digested sewage sludge onto farmland has created the necessity to evaluate the fate of pathogens which are often present. The occurrence of enteroviruses and Giardia cysts in mesophilic anaerobically digested sludge before and after treatment, was monitored for a period of 14 months. The concentration of enteroviruses in sludge determined by Most Probable Number (MPN) ranged from 4.36 x 103 to 7.00 x 105 MPN/Kg before anaerobic digestion and from < 6.25 to 2.52 x 105 MPN/Kg after treatment. The concentration of Giardia cysts as determined by immunofluorescence ranged from 7.33 x 104 to 3.30 x 106 cysts/Kg of undigested sludge and 1.00 x 105 to 4.14 x 106 cysts/Kg of anaerobically digested sludge. The percentage virus removal after anaerobic digestion varied from 68% to > 99.94%. The levels of intact Giardia cysts did not show any significant removal after sludge treatment. However, cyst viability could not be assessed by the method used for detection. Results of this study suggest that significant concentrations of both groups of pathogens can be present in anaerobically digested sludge.

AB - The disposal of anaerobically digested sewage sludge onto farmland has created the necessity to evaluate the fate of pathogens which are often present. The occurrence of enteroviruses and Giardia cysts in mesophilic anaerobically digested sludge before and after treatment, was monitored for a period of 14 months. The concentration of enteroviruses in sludge determined by Most Probable Number (MPN) ranged from 4.36 x 103 to 7.00 x 105 MPN/Kg before anaerobic digestion and from < 6.25 to 2.52 x 105 MPN/Kg after treatment. The concentration of Giardia cysts as determined by immunofluorescence ranged from 7.33 x 104 to 3.30 x 106 cysts/Kg of undigested sludge and 1.00 x 105 to 4.14 x 106 cysts/Kg of anaerobically digested sludge. The percentage virus removal after anaerobic digestion varied from 68% to > 99.94%. The levels of intact Giardia cysts did not show any significant removal after sludge treatment. However, cyst viability could not be assessed by the method used for detection. Results of this study suggest that significant concentrations of both groups of pathogens can be present in anaerobically digested sludge.

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