Effect of Mosquito Age and Reproductive Status on Melanization of Sephadex Beads in Plasmodium-Refractory and -Susceptible Strains of Anopheles gambiae

Jaesun Chun, Michael A Riehle, Susan M. Paskewitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Malaria-refractory and -susceptible strains of the mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, differ in their response to negatively-charged Sephadex CM-25 beads. CM-25 beads elicit a much stronger melanization reaction in refractory mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes. Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies documented a progression from early stages with small spots of melanin adhering to CM-25 beads to late stages where spots had grown and coalesced to form a dark dense capsule. This reaction occurred maximally during the first 18 hr after inoculation; female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days showed 45% of beads heavily melanized by 18 hr postinoculation in the refractory strain and 0-10% in the susceptible strain. Female mosquito age and reproductive status strongly affected the ability to melanize beads. All of the beads were completely melanized in the refractory strain on the day immediately following eclosion (Day 0); thereafter these levels decreased steadily until the last time point on Day 7, when only 23% of beads were melanized in this strain. In the susceptible strain, 53% of beads were heavily melanized on Day 0 and 0-10% were melanized at all other times. At Day 1 and 2 after blood feeding, 85 and 88% of beads, respectively, were heavily melanized in refractory females in comparison with control mosquitoes of the same age which heavily melanize 23-58% of the beads. Blood feeding had little effect on the ability to melanize beads in the susceptible strain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-17
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Invertebrate Pathology
Volume66
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

reproductive status
melanization
Anopheles gambiae
Plasmodium
mosquito
Culicidae
hemophagy
melanin
malaria
mosquito control
blood
inoculation
effect
eclosion
electron
electrons

Keywords

  • Anopheles gambiae
  • insect immunity
  • malaria
  • mosquito
  • Plasmodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Insect Science

Cite this

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title = "Effect of Mosquito Age and Reproductive Status on Melanization of Sephadex Beads in Plasmodium-Refractory and -Susceptible Strains of Anopheles gambiae",
abstract = "Malaria-refractory and -susceptible strains of the mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, differ in their response to negatively-charged Sephadex CM-25 beads. CM-25 beads elicit a much stronger melanization reaction in refractory mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes. Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies documented a progression from early stages with small spots of melanin adhering to CM-25 beads to late stages where spots had grown and coalesced to form a dark dense capsule. This reaction occurred maximally during the first 18 hr after inoculation; female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days showed 45{\%} of beads heavily melanized by 18 hr postinoculation in the refractory strain and 0-10{\%} in the susceptible strain. Female mosquito age and reproductive status strongly affected the ability to melanize beads. All of the beads were completely melanized in the refractory strain on the day immediately following eclosion (Day 0); thereafter these levels decreased steadily until the last time point on Day 7, when only 23{\%} of beads were melanized in this strain. In the susceptible strain, 53{\%} of beads were heavily melanized on Day 0 and 0-10{\%} were melanized at all other times. At Day 1 and 2 after blood feeding, 85 and 88{\%} of beads, respectively, were heavily melanized in refractory females in comparison with control mosquitoes of the same age which heavily melanize 23-58{\%} of the beads. Blood feeding had little effect on the ability to melanize beads in the susceptible strain.",
keywords = "Anopheles gambiae, insect immunity, malaria, mosquito, Plasmodium",
author = "Jaesun Chun and Riehle, {Michael A} and Paskewitz, {Susan M.}",
year = "1995",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of Mosquito Age and Reproductive Status on Melanization of Sephadex Beads in Plasmodium-Refractory and -Susceptible Strains of Anopheles gambiae

AU - Chun, Jaesun

AU - Riehle, Michael A

AU - Paskewitz, Susan M.

PY - 1995/7

Y1 - 1995/7

N2 - Malaria-refractory and -susceptible strains of the mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, differ in their response to negatively-charged Sephadex CM-25 beads. CM-25 beads elicit a much stronger melanization reaction in refractory mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes. Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies documented a progression from early stages with small spots of melanin adhering to CM-25 beads to late stages where spots had grown and coalesced to form a dark dense capsule. This reaction occurred maximally during the first 18 hr after inoculation; female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days showed 45% of beads heavily melanized by 18 hr postinoculation in the refractory strain and 0-10% in the susceptible strain. Female mosquito age and reproductive status strongly affected the ability to melanize beads. All of the beads were completely melanized in the refractory strain on the day immediately following eclosion (Day 0); thereafter these levels decreased steadily until the last time point on Day 7, when only 23% of beads were melanized in this strain. In the susceptible strain, 53% of beads were heavily melanized on Day 0 and 0-10% were melanized at all other times. At Day 1 and 2 after blood feeding, 85 and 88% of beads, respectively, were heavily melanized in refractory females in comparison with control mosquitoes of the same age which heavily melanize 23-58% of the beads. Blood feeding had little effect on the ability to melanize beads in the susceptible strain.

AB - Malaria-refractory and -susceptible strains of the mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, differ in their response to negatively-charged Sephadex CM-25 beads. CM-25 beads elicit a much stronger melanization reaction in refractory mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes. Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies documented a progression from early stages with small spots of melanin adhering to CM-25 beads to late stages where spots had grown and coalesced to form a dark dense capsule. This reaction occurred maximally during the first 18 hr after inoculation; female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days showed 45% of beads heavily melanized by 18 hr postinoculation in the refractory strain and 0-10% in the susceptible strain. Female mosquito age and reproductive status strongly affected the ability to melanize beads. All of the beads were completely melanized in the refractory strain on the day immediately following eclosion (Day 0); thereafter these levels decreased steadily until the last time point on Day 7, when only 23% of beads were melanized in this strain. In the susceptible strain, 53% of beads were heavily melanized on Day 0 and 0-10% were melanized at all other times. At Day 1 and 2 after blood feeding, 85 and 88% of beads, respectively, were heavily melanized in refractory females in comparison with control mosquitoes of the same age which heavily melanize 23-58% of the beads. Blood feeding had little effect on the ability to melanize beads in the susceptible strain.

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