Summary: The effects of negative and positive airway pressure were examined in eight closed chest, chronically instrumented dogs to determine beat to beat changes in left ventricular pressure, left ventricular dP/dt, left ventricular dimensions, left atrial dimensions, and oesophageal pressure. As an index of afterload, systolic transmural pressure was calculated by subtracting oesophageal pressure from left ventricular pressure. With each change in airway pressure left ventricular end systolic minor axis diameter and left ventricular end diastolic minor axis diameter increased significantly. Left atrial end diastolic dimension increased significantly with negative airway pressure and did not change with positive airway pressure. Left ventricular dP/dt and left ventricular fractional shortening did not change. With the Mueller manoeuvre left ventricular systolic pressure decreased significantly from 106.0(4.2) mm Hg to 100.9(4.2) mm Hg and systolic transmural pressure increased significantly from 105.1(4.6) mm Hg to 110.4(4.3) mm Hg. With a transient increase in positive airway pressure of 30 mm Hg (4.0 kPa), left ventricular pressure increased significantly from 106.9(4.8) mm Hg to 113.9(5.9) mm Hg and systolic transmural pressure decreased significantly from 106.6(4.9) mm Hg to 99.8(4.6) mm Hg. The addition of positive end expiratory pressure of 10 cm H2O (0.98 kPa) or autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol did not alter these results. Thus manoeuvres which cause opposite effects on systolic transmural pressure produce similar increases in left heart dimensions, suggesting that increases in pulmonary venous return and not changes in afterload may be the important determinants of left ventricular dimensional changes during changes in airway pressure.
- Heart-lung interaction
- Venous return
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)