Effects of feeding processed corn stover and distillers grains on growth performance and metabolism of beef cattle

W. P. Chapple, M. J. Cecava, Dan B Faulkner, T. L. Felix

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of replacing corn in feedlot finishing diets with processed corn stover (CS), processed by various combinations of chemical and physical methods, and modified wet distillers grain with solubles (MWDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism of cattle. Corn stover was physically processed (ground or extruded) and chemically processed with alkaline agents (CaO and NaOH) to reduce the crystallinity of the lignocellulosic structure. In Exp. 1 steers (n = 18, initial BW = 385 ± 32 kg) and heifers (n = 41, initial BW = 381 ± 27 kg) were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) 55% dry, cracked corn, 35% MWDGS, 5% vitamin-mineral supplement, and 5% untreated ground CS (CON), 2) CS treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and stored in an Ag-Bag (BGCS), 3) CS treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and extruded (5 EXCS), 4) CS treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (4,1 EXCS), or 5) CS treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (3,2 EXCS). Extruded CS was hydrated to 34% moisture, then an additional 16% water was added, as a solution carrying CaO or NaOH or both, via a calibrated pump during processing through a dual-shafted encased extruder (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA) with the desired exiting temperature of 76.7°C ± 2.8°C. All treated CS diets contained 20% CS and 40% MWDGS (DM basis) to replace 20% corn when compared to CON. There were no effects (P ≥ 0.20) of dietary treatment on ADG, G:F, 12th-rib back fat, marbling score, LM area, or yield grade. However, cattle fed CON had increased (P = 0.02) DMI compared to cattle fed the treated CS diets. In Exp. 2, using the same diets as fed in Exp. 1, ruminally cannulated steers (n = 5; initial BW = 417 ± 21 kg) were fed for 90% of ad libitum intake in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Apparent digestibility of NDF and ADF increased (P < 0.01) when cattle were fed treated CS diets compared with CON, regardless of the treatment applied. Ruminal pH was reduced (P = 0.02) in cattle fed BGCS from 0 to 6 h postfeeding compared with cattle fed all other diets. Cattle fed the treated CS diets had the greatest (P < 0.01) mean acetate concentrations, which increased (P = 0.01) total VFA concentrations. Replacing a portion of the corn with treated CS in feedlot diets containing MWDGS increased fiber digestibility without affecting feedlot cattle gain, efficiency, marbling score, or LM area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4002-4011
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume93
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 6 2015

Fingerprint

distillers grains
corn stover
beef cattle
Zea mays
growth performance
metabolism
Growth
cattle feeds
Diet
diet
feedlots
corn
marbling
digestibility
cattle
vitamin-mineral supplements
extruders
backfat
rumen fermentation
ribs

Keywords

  • Calcium oxide
  • Cattle
  • Corn stover
  • Digestibility
  • Distillers grains

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Food Science
  • Genetics

Cite this

Effects of feeding processed corn stover and distillers grains on growth performance and metabolism of beef cattle. / Chapple, W. P.; Cecava, M. J.; Faulkner, Dan B; Felix, T. L.

In: Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 93, No. 8, 06.08.2015, p. 4002-4011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objectives were to evaluate the effects of replacing corn in feedlot finishing diets with processed corn stover (CS), processed by various combinations of chemical and physical methods, and modified wet distillers grain with solubles (MWDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism of cattle. Corn stover was physically processed (ground or extruded) and chemically processed with alkaline agents (CaO and NaOH) to reduce the crystallinity of the lignocellulosic structure. In Exp. 1 steers (n = 18, initial BW = 385 ± 32 kg) and heifers (n = 41, initial BW = 381 ± 27 kg) were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) 55{\%} dry, cracked corn, 35{\%} MWDGS, 5{\%} vitamin-mineral supplement, and 5{\%} untreated ground CS (CON), 2) CS treated with 5{\%} CaO (DM basis) and stored in an Ag-Bag (BGCS), 3) CS treated with 5{\%} CaO (DM basis) and extruded (5 EXCS), 4) CS treated with 4{\%} CaO and 1{\%} NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (4,1 EXCS), or 5) CS treated with 3{\%} CaO and 2{\%} NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (3,2 EXCS). Extruded CS was hydrated to 34{\%} moisture, then an additional 16{\%} water was added, as a solution carrying CaO or NaOH or both, via a calibrated pump during processing through a dual-shafted encased extruder (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA) with the desired exiting temperature of 76.7°C ± 2.8°C. All treated CS diets contained 20{\%} CS and 40{\%} MWDGS (DM basis) to replace 20{\%} corn when compared to CON. There were no effects (P ≥ 0.20) of dietary treatment on ADG, G:F, 12th-rib back fat, marbling score, LM area, or yield grade. However, cattle fed CON had increased (P = 0.02) DMI compared to cattle fed the treated CS diets. In Exp. 2, using the same diets as fed in Exp. 1, ruminally cannulated steers (n = 5; initial BW = 417 ± 21 kg) were fed for 90{\%} of ad libitum intake in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Apparent digestibility of NDF and ADF increased (P < 0.01) when cattle were fed treated CS diets compared with CON, regardless of the treatment applied. Ruminal pH was reduced (P = 0.02) in cattle fed BGCS from 0 to 6 h postfeeding compared with cattle fed all other diets. Cattle fed the treated CS diets had the greatest (P < 0.01) mean acetate concentrations, which increased (P = 0.01) total VFA concentrations. Replacing a portion of the corn with treated CS in feedlot diets containing MWDGS increased fiber digestibility without affecting feedlot cattle gain, efficiency, marbling score, or LM area.",
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N2 - Objectives were to evaluate the effects of replacing corn in feedlot finishing diets with processed corn stover (CS), processed by various combinations of chemical and physical methods, and modified wet distillers grain with solubles (MWDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism of cattle. Corn stover was physically processed (ground or extruded) and chemically processed with alkaline agents (CaO and NaOH) to reduce the crystallinity of the lignocellulosic structure. In Exp. 1 steers (n = 18, initial BW = 385 ± 32 kg) and heifers (n = 41, initial BW = 381 ± 27 kg) were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) 55% dry, cracked corn, 35% MWDGS, 5% vitamin-mineral supplement, and 5% untreated ground CS (CON), 2) CS treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and stored in an Ag-Bag (BGCS), 3) CS treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and extruded (5 EXCS), 4) CS treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (4,1 EXCS), or 5) CS treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (3,2 EXCS). Extruded CS was hydrated to 34% moisture, then an additional 16% water was added, as a solution carrying CaO or NaOH or both, via a calibrated pump during processing through a dual-shafted encased extruder (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA) with the desired exiting temperature of 76.7°C ± 2.8°C. All treated CS diets contained 20% CS and 40% MWDGS (DM basis) to replace 20% corn when compared to CON. There were no effects (P ≥ 0.20) of dietary treatment on ADG, G:F, 12th-rib back fat, marbling score, LM area, or yield grade. However, cattle fed CON had increased (P = 0.02) DMI compared to cattle fed the treated CS diets. In Exp. 2, using the same diets as fed in Exp. 1, ruminally cannulated steers (n = 5; initial BW = 417 ± 21 kg) were fed for 90% of ad libitum intake in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Apparent digestibility of NDF and ADF increased (P < 0.01) when cattle were fed treated CS diets compared with CON, regardless of the treatment applied. Ruminal pH was reduced (P = 0.02) in cattle fed BGCS from 0 to 6 h postfeeding compared with cattle fed all other diets. Cattle fed the treated CS diets had the greatest (P < 0.01) mean acetate concentrations, which increased (P = 0.01) total VFA concentrations. Replacing a portion of the corn with treated CS in feedlot diets containing MWDGS increased fiber digestibility without affecting feedlot cattle gain, efficiency, marbling score, or LM area.

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KW - Calcium oxide

KW - Cattle

KW - Corn stover

KW - Digestibility

KW - Distillers grains

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