Effects of propamocarb hydrochloride on mycelial growth, sporulation, and infection by Phytophthora nicotianae isolates from Virginia nurseries

Jiahuai Hu, Chuanxue Hong, Erik L. Stromberg, Gary W. Moorman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Propamocarb hydrochloride is a systemic fungicide commonly used for control of Phytophthora diseases of nursery crops. Here we report on the effect of this compound on different growth stages of Phytophthora nicotianae, a major pathogen of numerous herbaceous and some woody ornamental plants. A total of 71 isolates were assayed for sensitivity to propamocarb at two concentrations of 1.8 mg/ml (label rate) and 10 mg/ml using clarified V8 agar as a base medium. All isolates grew at 10 mg/ml with the most sensitive isolate having 34.8% relative growth compared with growth on nonamended medium. Nine isolates were selected and further tested for mycelial growth at 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml, and for sporangium production, zoospore motility, and germination at 0, 5, 50, 500, 5,000, and 50,000 μg/ml. EC50 values ranged from 2.2 to 90.1 mg/ml for mycelial growth, 133.8 to 481.3 μg/ml for sporangium production, 88.1 to 249.8 μg/ml for zoospore motility, and 1.9 to 184.6 μg/ml for zoospore germination, respectively. In addition, 17 selected isolates were evaluated for propamocarb sensitivity on Pelargonium × hortorum cv. White Orbit. Two days after seedlings were treated with propamocarb at 3.6 mg/ml, they were inoculated by either inverting one 5-mm-diameter plug of a 3-day-old culture or applying a 10-μl drop containing 20 zoospores onto each cotyledon. Propamocarb hydrochloride provided good protection of geranium seedlings from zoospore infections but not from mycelial infections. These results suggest that this fungicide must be used preventively for Phytophthora disease management and that mycelial growth may not be the most reliable measurement to determine the development of fungicide resistance to this compound in Phytophthora species at production facilities and in the landscape.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)414-420
Number of pages7
JournalPlant disease
Volume91
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Phytophthora nicotianae
zoospores
sporulation
propamocarb
Phytophthora
Pelargonium hortorum
infection
sporangia
fungicides
germination
ornamental woody plants
fungicide resistance
nursery crops
orbits
cotyledons
disease control
agar
propamocarb hydrochloride
developmental stages
seedlings

Keywords

  • Fungicide resistance
  • IPM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Effects of propamocarb hydrochloride on mycelial growth, sporulation, and infection by Phytophthora nicotianae isolates from Virginia nurseries. / Hu, Jiahuai; Hong, Chuanxue; Stromberg, Erik L.; Moorman, Gary W.

In: Plant disease, Vol. 91, No. 4, 01.04.2007, p. 414-420.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Propamocarb hydrochloride is a systemic fungicide commonly used for control of Phytophthora diseases of nursery crops. Here we report on the effect of this compound on different growth stages of Phytophthora nicotianae, a major pathogen of numerous herbaceous and some woody ornamental plants. A total of 71 isolates were assayed for sensitivity to propamocarb at two concentrations of 1.8 mg/ml (label rate) and 10 mg/ml using clarified V8 agar as a base medium. All isolates grew at 10 mg/ml with the most sensitive isolate having 34.8{\%} relative growth compared with growth on nonamended medium. Nine isolates were selected and further tested for mycelial growth at 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml, and for sporangium production, zoospore motility, and germination at 0, 5, 50, 500, 5,000, and 50,000 μg/ml. EC50 values ranged from 2.2 to 90.1 mg/ml for mycelial growth, 133.8 to 481.3 μg/ml for sporangium production, 88.1 to 249.8 μg/ml for zoospore motility, and 1.9 to 184.6 μg/ml for zoospore germination, respectively. In addition, 17 selected isolates were evaluated for propamocarb sensitivity on Pelargonium × hortorum cv. White Orbit. Two days after seedlings were treated with propamocarb at 3.6 mg/ml, they were inoculated by either inverting one 5-mm-diameter plug of a 3-day-old culture or applying a 10-μl drop containing 20 zoospores onto each cotyledon. Propamocarb hydrochloride provided good protection of geranium seedlings from zoospore infections but not from mycelial infections. These results suggest that this fungicide must be used preventively for Phytophthora disease management and that mycelial growth may not be the most reliable measurement to determine the development of fungicide resistance to this compound in Phytophthora species at production facilities and in the landscape.",
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