Effects of refuge contamination by transgenes on Bt resistance in pink bollworm (Lepidoptera

Gelechiidae)

Shannon Heuberger, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Christine Yafuso, Aaron J. Gassmann, Bruce E Tabashnik, Timothy J. Dennehy, Yves Carriere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Refuges of non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are used to delay Bt resistance in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a pest that eats cotton seeds. Contamination of refuges by Bt transgenes could reduce the efficacy of this strategy. Previously, three types of contamination were identified in refuges: 1 ) homozygous Bt cotton plants, with 100% of their seeds producing the Bt toxin Cry1Ac; 2) hemizygous Bt plants with 70-80% of their seeds producing Cry1Ac; and 3) non-Bt plants that outcrossed with Bt plants, resulting in bolls with Cry1Ac in 12-17% of their seeds. Here, we used laboratory bioassays to examine the effects of Bt contamination on feeding behavior and survival of pink bollworm that were resistant (rr), susceptible (ss), or heterozygous for resistance (rs) to Cry1Ac. In choice tests, rr and rs larvae did not differ from ss in preference for non-Bt versus Bt seeds. Survival of rr and rs also did not differ from ss on artificial outcrossed bolls (a mixture of 20% Bt and 80% non-Bt cotton seeds). On artificial hemizygous Bt bolls (70% Bt seeds) and homozygous Bt bolls (100% Bt seeds), rr had higher survival than ss, although rs and ss did not differ. In a simulation model, levels of refuge contamination observed in the field had negligible effects on resistance evolution in pink bollworm. However, in hypothetical simulations where contamination conferred a selective advantage to rs over ss individuals in refuges, resistance evolution was accelerated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)504-514
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Economic Entomology
Volume101
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2008

Fingerprint

Pectinophora gossypiella
Gelechiidae
Bacillus thuringiensis
refuge
transgenes
Lepidoptera
seed
cotton
bolls
seeds
cottonseed
contamination
effect
feeding behavior
toxin
simulation
bioassay
larva
Gossypium hirsutum

Keywords

  • Bt cotton
  • Pectinophora gossypiella
  • Pink bollworm
  • Refuge
  • Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

Cite this

Effects of refuge contamination by transgenes on Bt resistance in pink bollworm (Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae). / Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Yafuso, Christine; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Carriere, Yves.

In: Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 101, No. 2, 04.2008, p. 504-514.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heuberger, Shannon ; Ellers-Kirk, Christa ; Yafuso, Christine ; Gassmann, Aaron J. ; Tabashnik, Bruce E ; Dennehy, Timothy J. ; Carriere, Yves. / Effects of refuge contamination by transgenes on Bt resistance in pink bollworm (Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae). In: Journal of Economic Entomology. 2008 ; Vol. 101, No. 2. pp. 504-514.
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abstract = "Refuges of non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are used to delay Bt resistance in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a pest that eats cotton seeds. Contamination of refuges by Bt transgenes could reduce the efficacy of this strategy. Previously, three types of contamination were identified in refuges: 1 ) homozygous Bt cotton plants, with 100{\%} of their seeds producing the Bt toxin Cry1Ac; 2) hemizygous Bt plants with 70-80{\%} of their seeds producing Cry1Ac; and 3) non-Bt plants that outcrossed with Bt plants, resulting in bolls with Cry1Ac in 12-17{\%} of their seeds. Here, we used laboratory bioassays to examine the effects of Bt contamination on feeding behavior and survival of pink bollworm that were resistant (rr), susceptible (ss), or heterozygous for resistance (rs) to Cry1Ac. In choice tests, rr and rs larvae did not differ from ss in preference for non-Bt versus Bt seeds. Survival of rr and rs also did not differ from ss on artificial outcrossed bolls (a mixture of 20{\%} Bt and 80{\%} non-Bt cotton seeds). On artificial hemizygous Bt bolls (70{\%} Bt seeds) and homozygous Bt bolls (100{\%} Bt seeds), rr had higher survival than ss, although rs and ss did not differ. In a simulation model, levels of refuge contamination observed in the field had negligible effects on resistance evolution in pink bollworm. However, in hypothetical simulations where contamination conferred a selective advantage to rs over ss individuals in refuges, resistance evolution was accelerated.",
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