Optical designers are encouraged to adopt aspheric and free-form surfaces into an increasing number of design spaces because of their improved performance. However, residual tooling marks from advanced aspheric fabrication techniques are difficult to remove. These marks, typically in the mid-spatial frequency (MSF) regime, give rise to structured image artifacts. Using a theory developed in previous publications, this paper applies the fundamentals of MSF modeling to demonstrate how MSF errors are evaluated and toleranced in an optical system. Examples of as-built components with MSF errors are analyzed using commercial optical design software.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering